Original 1977 No.1 Israel "STAR WARS" Comics CHAYKIN Roy Thomas LUKASFILM Hebrew

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Seller: judaica-bookstore (1.995) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 273575990339 “Eight for Aduba-3” . It took the Hebrew publishers almost 10 years to obtain the rights and in 1986 this fascinating HEBREW EDITION was published in ISRAEL in the HEBREW language , Being read and printed from right to left ( Being actualy a mirror image of the original English version ) . Around 7 x 10.5 ". 32 unpaged pp. Very good condition. Unused but suffers from slight shelf wear. One tiny pen ( Price change ) writing at top of front cover. Very slight cover wear. bottom and top spine slightly detached .( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Will be sent inside a protective tube. PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT : Shipp worldwide via registered airmail is $ 18 . Will be sent inside a protective tube . Will be sent within 3-5 days after payment . Kindly note that duration of Int'l registered airmail is around 14 days. MORE DETAILS : Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope)[4][5] is a 1977 American epic[discuss] space opera film[6][7] written and directed by George Lucas. The first installment of the original Star Wars trilogy, it stars Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Peter Cushing and Alec Guinness. David Prowse, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker and Peter Mayhew co-star in supporting roles. The plot focuses on the Rebel Alliance, led by Princess Leia (Fisher), and its attempt to destroy the Galactic Empire's space station, the Death Star. This conflict disrupts the isolated life of ambitious farmhand Luke Skywalker (Hamill) when he inadvertently acquires a pair of droids that possess stolen architectural plans for the Death Star. After the Empire begins a destructive search for the missing droids, Skywalker agrees to accompany Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi (Guinness) on a mission to return the Death Star plans to the Rebel Alliance and save the galaxy from the tyranny of the Galactic Empire. Lucas began writing the script to Star Wars after completing his 1973 comedy-drama American Graffiti. He based the plot outline on the 1936 Flash Gordon serials and the 1958 Akira Kurosawa film The Hidden Fortress. After United Artists and Universal Pictures rejected Lucas' script, Alan Ladd, Jr. of 20th Century Fox accepted it and agreed to finance and distribute the film. Shot mostly in Tunisia, England, and Guatemala, the film was met with numerous problems during production, including bad weather conditions, malfunctioning equipment, and financial difficulties. The script underwent numerous changes, and Lucas founded Industrial Light & Magic specifically to create the groundbreaking visual effects needed for the film. Star Wars was released theatrically in the United States on May 25, 1977. It earned $461 million in the United States and $314 million overseas, totaling $775 million. It surpassed Jaws (1975) to become the highest-grossing film of all time until E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial in 1983. When adjusted for inflation as of 2013, Star Wars was the second-highest-grossing film in the United States and Canada, and the third-highest-grossing film in the world. It received 10 Academy Award nominations (including Best Picture), winning seven. It was selected to become part of the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in its first year of opening as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant"; at the time, it was the newest film to be selected, and it was the only film from the 1970s to be chosen. The film's soundtrack was added to the United States National Recording Registry 15 years later. Today, it is often regarded as one of the greatest films of all time, and is also, alongside The Birth of a Nation and Citizen Kane,[8] considered by many to be one of the most important films in the history of motion pictures. Lucas has re-released Star Wars a number of times, incorporating many changes including modified computer-generated effects, altered dialogue, re-edited shots, remixed soundtracks, and added scenes. The film's massive success led to the production of two sequels: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983), both of which became critically and commercially successful. A prequel trilogy was later released between 1999 and 2005; all three films were again commercially successful, but did not match the level of critical and fanatical acclaim of the original trilogy. In early 2014 a sequel trilogy began production with a majority of the cast members from the original trilogy returning for the seventh installment, The Force Awakens, which is scheduled for release on December 18, 2015.[9] Contents 1 Plot2 Cast3 Production 3.1 Development3.2 Writing3.3 Design3.4 Filming3.5 Post-production4 Soundtrack5 Cinematic and literary allusions6 Release 6.1 Premiere and initial release6.2 Later releases6.3 Home media7 Reception 7.1 Box office7.2 Critical response7.3 Accolades8 Legacy 8.1 In popular culture8.2 Cinematic influence8.3 Recognition9 Merchandising10 See also11 Footnotes12 References13 Further reading14 External links Plot The galaxy is in a civil war, and spies for the Rebel Alliance have stolen plans to the Galactic Empire's Death Star, a heavily armed and armored space station capable of destroying entire planets. Rebel leader Princess Leia is in possession of the plans, but her ship is captured by Imperial forces under the command of the evil Lord Darth Vader. Before she is captured Leia hides the plans in the memory of an astromech droid called R2-D2, along with a holographic recording. The droid, accompanied by fellow protocol droid C-3PO, escape from the captured ship to the desert planet Tatooine. The droids are captured by Jawa traders, who sell the pair to moisture farmers Owen and Beru Lars and their nephew, Luke Skywalker. While he cleans R2-D2 Luke accidentally triggers the playing of part of Leia's recording, in which she requests help from Obi-Wan Kenobi. Luke wonders if she is referring to Ben Kenobi, a hermit who lives nearby; then he retires for the evening. The next morning Luke finds R2-D2 searching for Obi-Wan, and meets Ben, who reveals himself to be Obi-Wan. Obi-Wan tells Luke of his days as a Jedi, who were a faction of former galactic peacekeepers with supernatural powers derived from an energy field called the Force, and who were conquered by the Empire. Contrary to his uncle's assertions, Luke learns that his father fought alongside Obi-Wan as a Jedi Knight before he was betrayed and killed by Vader, Obi-Wan's former pupil who turned to the dark side of the Force. Obi-Wan then offers Luke his father's lightsaber. Obi-Wan views Leia's complete message, in which she begs him to take the Death Star plans to her home planet of Alderaan and give them to her father for analysis. Obi-Wan invites Luke to accompany him to Alderaan and become a student of the Force. Luke initially declines, but, after discovering that Imperial stormtroopers searching for C-3PO and R2-D2 have destroyed his home and killed his aunt and uncle, changes his mind. Obi-Wan and Luke visit the Mos Eisley Cantina, and hire smuggler Han Solo and his Wookiee first mate Chewbacca to transport them to Alderaan on their ship, the Millennium Falcon. Arriving at their destination, they find only debris; Alderaan has been destroyed by order of the Death Star's commanding officer, Grand Moff Tarkin, as a demonstration of the Death Star's power. The Falcon is captured by the Death Star's tractor beam and brought into its hangar bay. While Obi-Wan attempts to disable the tractor beam, R2-D2 discovers that Leia is imprisoned aboard. With the help of Han and Chewbacca, Luke rescues her. After several harrowing escapes, the group makes its way back to the Falcon. Obi-Wan engages in a lightsaber duel with Darth Vader and is killed. The Falcon escapes the Death Star, but carries a homing device that enables Tarkin and Vader to track it to the rebels' hidden base on Yavin 4. The rebels' analysis of the Death Star plans reveals a vulnerable exhaust port that connects to the station's main reactor; they plan a mission to attack it. Luke joins the rebel assault squadron, while Han collects his payment for the transport and intends to leave despite Luke's request that he stay and help. In the subsequent battle, the rebels suffer heavy losses after several unsuccessful attack runs, leaving Luke as one of the few surviving pilots. Vader leads a squad of TIE fighters and prepares to attack Luke's X-wing ship, but Han returns and fires on the Imperials, sending Vader spiraling away. Helped by spiritual advice from Obi-Wan instructing him to use the Force, Luke successfully destroys the Death Star, killing Tarkin seconds before he can fire on the rebel base. Leia later awards Luke and Han medals for their heroism. Cast From left: Luke Skywalker (Mark Hamill), Princess Leia (Carrie Fisher), and Han Solo (Harrison Ford) Anthony Daniels (pictured here in 2005) was convinced to take the role of the droid C-3PO after seeing a design drawing of the character's face Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: a young man raised by his aunt and uncle on Tatooine, who dreams of something more than his current life Lucas favored casting young actors who lacked long experience. To play Luke (then known as Luke Starkiller), Lucas sought actors who could project intelligence and integrity. While reading for the character, Hamill found the dialogue to be extremely odd because of its universe-embedded concepts. He chose to simply read it sincerely, and he was selected instead of William Katt, who was subsequently cast in the Brian De Palma-directed Carrie (Lucas shared a joint casting session with De Palma, a long-time friend of his).[10][11] Harrison Ford as Han Solo: a cynical smuggler hired by Obi-Wan and Luke to take them to Alderaan in his ship, the Millennium Falcon, which is co-piloted by Chewbacca Lucas initially rejected casting Ford for the role, as he "wanted new faces"; Ford had previously worked with the director on American Graffiti. Instead, Lucas asked the actor to assist in the auditions by reading lines with the other actors and explaining the concepts and history behind the scenes that they were reading. Lucas was eventually won over by Ford's portrayal and cast him instead of Kurt Russell, Nick Nolte,[11] Sylvester Stallone,[12] Bill Murray,[13][14] Christopher Walken, Burt Reynolds, Jack Nicholson, Al Pacino, Steve Martin, Chevy Chase, Billy Dee Williams (who later played Lando Calrissian in the sequels), and Perry King (who later played Han Solo in the radio plays).[10][15] Carrie Fisher as Princess Leia: a member of the Imperial Senate and leader of the Rebel Alliance Many young actresses in Hollywood auditioned for the role of Princess Leia, including Amy Irving,[11] Terri Nunn, Cindy Williams,[10] and Jodie Foster. Foster turned down the role because she was already under contract with Disney and working on two films at the time.[16] Carrie Fisher was cast under the condition that she lose 10 pounds for the role.[17] Peter Cushing as Grand Moff Tarkin: Governor of the Imperial Outland Regions and commander of the Death Star Lucas originally had Cushing in mind for the role of Obi-Wan Kenobi, but Lucas believed that "his lean features" would be better employed in the role of Grand Moff Tarkin instead. Lucas commended Cushing's performance, saying "[He] is a very good actor. Adored and idolized by young people and by people who go to see a certain kind of movie. I feel he will be fondly remembered for the next 350 years at least." Cushing, commenting on his role, joked: "I've often wondered what a 'Grand Moff' was. It sounds like something that flew out of a cupboard."[18] Alec Guinness as Obi-Wan "Ben" Kenobi: an aging Jedi who fought during the Clone Wars, and who introduces Luke to the Force Lucas's decision to cast "unknowns" was not taken favorably by his friend Francis Ford Coppola and the studio. Lucas needed an established actor to play the important Obi-Wan Kenobi character. Producer Gary Kurtz said, "The Alec Guinness role required a certain stability and gravitas as a character... which meant we needed a very, very strong character actor to play that part."[10] Before Guinness was cast, Japanese actor Toshiro Mifune (who starred in Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress) was considered for the role.[11] Guinness was one of the few cast members who believed that the film would be successful; he negotiated a deal for 2% of the one-fifth gross royalties paid to George Lucas, which made him quite wealthy in later life. He agreed to take the part of Kenobi on the condition that he would not have to do any publicity to promote the film.[19] Lucas credited him with inspiring the cast and crew to work harder, saying that Guinness contributed significantly to the completion of the filming.[20] Harrison Ford said, "It was, for me, fascinating to watch Alec Guinness. He was always prepared, always professional, always very kind to the other actors. He had a very clear head about how to serve the story."[10] David Prowse as Darth Vader (voiced by James Earl Jones): the second in command of the Galactic Empire, who hopes to destroy the Rebel Alliance Lucas originally intended for Orson Welles to voice Vader (after dismissing using Prowse's own voice due to his English West Country accent). After deciding that Welles' voice would be too recognizable, he cast the lesser-known James Earl Jones instead.[10][11] Anthony Daniels as C-3PO: a protocol droid who speaks over six million languages Daniels auditioned for and was cast as C-3PO; he has said that he wanted the role after he saw a Ralph McQuarrie drawing of the character and was struck by the vulnerability in the robot's face.[10][21] Initially, Lucas did not intend to use Daniels' voice for C-3PO. 30 well-established voice actors read for the voice of the droid. According to Daniels, one of the major voice actors, believed by some sources to be Stan Freberg, recommended Daniels' voice for the role.[10][22] Kenny Baker as R2-D2: an astromech droid who is carrying the Death Star plans and a secret message for Obi-Wan from Princess Leia While Lucas was filming in London, where additional casting took place, Baker, performing a musical comedy act with his acting partner Jack Purvis, learned that the film crew was looking for a small person to fit inside a robot suit and maneuver it; Baker, who is 3 feet 8 inches (1.12 m) tall, was cast immediately after meeting George Lucas. He said, "He saw me come in and said 'He'll do' because I was the smallest guy they'd seen up until then." He initially turned down the role three times, hesitant to appear in a film where his face would not be shown and hoping to continue the success of his comedy act, which had recently started to be televised.[23] Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca: a 200-year-old Wookiee, Han Solo's sidekick, and first mate of the Millennium Falcon Mayhew learned of a casting call for Star Wars, which was filming in London, and decided to audition. The 7 feet 3 inches (2.21 m) tall actor was immediately cast as Chewbacca after he stood up to greet Lucas.[10][24] He said, "I sat down on one of the sofas, waiting for George. Door opened, and George walked in with Gary behind him. So, naturally, what did I do? I'm raised in England. Soon as someone comes in through the door, I stand up. George goes 'Hmm [looked up].' Virtually turned to Gary, and said 'I think we've found him.'"[10] He was actually eligible for either of the two roles: Chewbacca or Darth Vader. He chose the former because he wanted to play a hero; British actor David Prowse took the other.[24] Mayhew modeled his performance of Chewbacca after the mannerisms of animals he saw at public zoos.[19] Other characters include: Owen and Beru, Luke's uncle and aunt, are portrayed by Phil Brown and Shelagh Fraser, respectively; Jack Purvis, Kenny Baker's partner in his London comedy act, appears as the Chief Jawa in the film; Eddie Byrne performs the role of General Vanden Willard, a general during the Galactic Civil War; actors Denis Lawson and Garrick Hagon were cast as rebel pilots Wedge Antilles and Biggs Darklighter (also Luke's childhood friend), respectively; and Don Henderson and Leslie Schofield play Imperial Generals Cassio Tagge and Moradmin Bast, respectively. Production Development George Lucas, the director and writer of Star Wars, shown here in 2007. He was unsuccessful in pitching his idea to several major Hollywood studios because it was "a little strange". Eventually, Lucas presented the treatment to 20th Century Fox, and the film was approved.[25] Elements of the history of Star Wars are commonly disputed, as George Lucas's statements about it have changed over time.[a 1] Lucas has said that it was early as 1971—after he completed directing his first full-length feature, THX 1138—that he first had an idea for a space fantasy film,[26] though he has also claimed to have had the idea long before then.[27] Originally, Lucas wanted to adapt the Flash Gordon space adventure comics and serials into his own films, having been fascinated by it since he was young. In 1979, he said, "I especially loved the Flash Gordon serials... Of course I realize now how crude and badly done they were... loving them that much when they were so awful, I began to wonder what would happen if they were done really well."[28] At the Cannes Film Festival in May following the completion of THX 1138, Lucas was granted a two-film development deal with United Artists; the two films were American Graffiti, and an untitled Flash Gordon-esque space fantasy film. He pushed towards buying the Flash Gordon rights.[28] He said: I wanted to make a Flash Gordon movie, with all the trimmings, but I couldn't obtain the rights to the characters. So I began researching and went right back and found where Alex Raymond (who had done the original Flash Gordon comic strips in newspapers) had got his idea from. I discovered that he'd got his inspiration from the works of Edgar Rice Burroughs (author of Tarzan) and especially from his John Carter of Mars series books. I read through that series, then found that what had sparked Burroughs off was a science-fantasy called Gulliver on Mars, written by Edwin Arnold and published in 1905. That was the first story in this genre that I have been able to trace. Jules Verne had got pretty close, I suppose, but he never had a hero battling against space creatures or having adventures on another planet. A whole new genre developed from that idea.[26] Director Francis Ford Coppola, who accompanied Lucas in buying the Flash Gordon rights, recounted in 1999, "[George] was very depressed because he had just come back and they wouldn't sell him Flash Gordon. And he says, 'Well, I'll just invent my own.'"[28] Lucas envisioned his own space opera and called it The Star Wars.[29] After his failed attempt to gain the rights, Lucas went to United Artists and showed the script for American Graffiti, but they passed on the film, which was then picked up by Universal Pictures.[29] United Artists also passed on Lucas's The Star Wars concept, which he shelved for the time being.[30] After spending the next two years completing American Graffiti, Lucas turned his attention to The Star Wars.[26][29] Lucas began writing in January 1973, "eight hours a day, five days a week",[26] by taking small notes, inventing odd names and assigning them possible characterizations. Lucas would discard many of these by the time the final script was written, but he included several names and places in the final script or its sequels. He revived others decades later when he wrote his prequel trilogy. He used these initial names and ideas to compile a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which told the tale of the training of apprentice CJ Thorpe as a "Jedi-Bendu" space commando by the legendary Mace Windu.[31] Frustrated that his story was too difficult to understand,[32] Lucas then began writing a 13-page treatment called The Star Wars on April 17, 1973, which had thematic parallels with Akira Kurosawa's 1958 film The Hidden Fortress.[33] After United Artists declined to budget the film, Lucas and producer Gary Kurtz presented the film treatment to Universal Pictures, the studio that financed American Graffiti; however, it rejected its options for the film because the concept was "a little strange", and it said that Lucas should follow American Graffiti with more consequential themes.[25] Lucas said, "I've always been an outsider to Hollywood types. They think I do weirdo films."[25] According to Kurtz, Lew Wasserman, the studio's head, "just didn't think much of science fiction at that time, didn't think it had much of a future then, with that particular audience."[34] He said that "science fiction wasn't popular in the mid-'70s ... what seems to be the case generally is that the studio executives are looking for what was popular last year, rather than trying to look forward to what might be popular next year."[35] Lucas explained in 1977 that the film is not "about the future" and that it "is a fantasy much closer to the Brothers Grimm than it is to 2001". He added: "My main reason for making it was to give young people an honest, wholesome fantasy life, the kind my generation had. We had westerns, pirate movies, all kinds of great things. Now they have The Six Million Dollar Man and Kojak. Where are the romance, the adventure, and the fun that used to be in practically every movie made?"[25] Kurtz said, "Although Star Wars wasn't like that at all, it was just sort of lumped into that same kind of [science fiction] category."[34] There were also concerns regarding the project's potentially high budget. Lucas and Kurtz, in pitching the film, said that it would be "low-budget, Roger Corman style, and the budget was never going to be more than—well, originally we had proposed about 8 million, it ended up being about 10. Both of those figures are very low budget by Hollywood standards at the time."[34] After Walt Disney Productions rejected the project,[36] Lucas and Kurtz persisted in securing a studio to support the film because "other people had read it and said, 'Yeah, it could be a good idea...'"[34] Lucas pursued Alan Ladd, Jr., the head of 20th Century Fox, and in June 1973 completed a deal to write and direct the film. Although Ladd did not grasp the technical side of the project, he believed that Lucas was talented. Lucas later stated that Ladd "invested in me, he did not invest in the movie."[10] The deal gave Lucas $150,000 to write and direct the film.[19] Writing "It's the flotsam and jetsam from the period when I was twelve years old. All the books and films and comics that I liked when I was a child. The plot is simple—good against evil—and the film is designed to be all the fun things and fantasy things I remember. The word for this movie is fun." —George Lucas[25] Since commencing his writing process in January 1973, Lucas had done "various rewrites in the evenings after the day's work." He would write four different screenplays for Star Wars, "searching for just the right ingredients, characters and storyline. It's always been what you might call a good idea in search of a story."[26] By May 1974, he had expanded the film treatment into a rough draft screenplay, adding elements such as the Sith, the Death Star, and a general by the name of Annikin Starkiller. He changed Starkiller to an adolescent boy, and he shifted the general into a supporting role as a member of a family of dwarfs.[10][22] Lucas envisioned the Corellian smuggler, Han Solo, as a large, green-skinned monster with gills. He based Chewbacca on his Alaskan Malamute dog, Indiana (whom he would later use as namesake for his character Indiana Jones), who often acted as the director's "co-pilot" by sitting in the passenger seat of his car.[22] Lucas began researching the science fiction genre by watching films and reading books and comics.[37] His first script incorporated ideas from many new sources. The script would also introduce the concept of a Jedi Master father and his son, who trains to be a Jedi under his father's friend; this would ultimately form the basis for the film and, later, the trilogy. However, in this draft, the father is a hero who is still alive at the start of the film.[38] Lucas completed a second draft of The Star Wars in January 1975, making heavy simplifications and introducing the young hero on a farm as Luke Starkiller. Annikin became Luke's father, a wise Jedi knight. "The Force" was also introduced as a mystical energy field.[39] This second draft still had some differences from the final version in the characters and relationships. For example, Luke had several brothers, as well as his father, who appears in a minor role at the end of the film. The script became more of a fairy tale quest as opposed to the action-adventure of the previous versions. This version ended with another text crawl, previewing the next story in the series. This draft was also the first to introduce the concept of a Jedi turning to the dark side: the draft included a historical Jedi who became the first to ever fall to the dark side, and then trained the Sith to use it. Impressed with his works, Lucas hired conceptual artist Ralph McQuarrie to create paintings of certain scenes around this time. When Lucas delivered his screenplay to the studio, he included several of McQuarrie's paintings.[40] A third draft, dated August 1, 1975, was titled The Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Starkiller. This third draft had most of the elements of the final plot, with only some differences in the characters and settings. The draft characterized Luke as an only child, with his father already dead, replacing him with a substitute named Ben Kenobi.[39] This script would be re-written for the fourth and final draft, dated January 1, 1976, as The Adventures of Luke Starkiller as taken from the Journal of the Whills, Saga I: The Star Wars. Lucas worked with his friends Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck to revise the fourth draft into the final pre-production script.[41] 20th Century Fox approved a budget of $8.25 million; American Graffiti ' s positive reception afforded Lucas the leverage necessary to renegotiate his deal with Alan Ladd, Jr. and request the sequel rights to the film. For Lucas, this deal protected Star Wars ' unwritten segments and most of the merchandising profits.[10] Lucas finished writing his script in March 1976, when the crew started filming. He said, "What finally emerged through the many drafts of the script has obviously been influenced by science-fiction and action-adventure I've read and seen. And I've seen a lot of it. I'm trying to make a classic sort of genre picture, a classic space fantasy in which all the influences are working together. There are certain traditional aspects of the genre I wanted to keep and help perpetuate in Star Wars."[26] During production, he changed Luke's name from Starkiller to Skywalker[10] and altered the title to The Star Wars and later Star Wars.[39] He would also continue to tweak the script during filming, including adding the death of Obi-Wan after realizing he served no purpose in the ending of the film.[42][43] For the film's opening crawl, Lucas originally wrote a composition consisting of six paragraphs with four sentences each.[19] He said, "The crawl is such a hard thing because you have to be careful that you're not using too many words that people don't understand. It's like a poem." Lucas showed his draft to his friends.[44] Director Brian De Palma, who was there, described it: "The crawl at the beginning looks like it was written on a driveway. It goes on forever. It's gibberish."[45] Lucas recounted what De Palma said the first time he saw it: "George, you're out of your mind! Let me sit down and write this for you." De Palma helped to edit the text into the form used in the film.[44] Design George Lucas recruited many conceptual designers, including: Colin Cantwell, who worked on 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), to conceptualize the initial spacecraft models; Alex Tavoularis to create the preliminary conceptual storyboard sketches of early scripts; and Ralph McQuarrie to visualize the characters, costumes, props and scenery.[26] McQuarrie's pre-production paintings of certain scenes from Lucas's early screenplay drafts helped 20th Century Fox visualize the film, which positively influenced their decision to fund the project. After McQuarrie's drawings for Lucas's colleagues Hal Barwood and Matthew Robbins (who were collaborating for a film) caught his interest, Lucas met with McQuarrie to discuss his plans for the then-untitled space fantasy film he wanted to make. Two years later, after completing American Graffiti, Lucas approached McQuarrie and asked him if he would be interested "in doing something for Star Wars."[46] McQuarrie produced a series of artworks from simple sketches; these set a visual tone for the film, and for the rest of the original trilogy.[26] "Star Wars has no points of reference to Earth time or space, with which we are familiar, and it is not about the future but some galactic past or some extra-temporal present, it is a decidedly inhabited and used place where the hardware is taken for granted." —Lucas on his "used future" backdrop[47] The film was ambitious as Lucas wanted to create fresh prop prototypes and sets (based on McQuarrie's paintings) that had never been realized before in science fiction films. He commissioned production designers John Barry and Roger Christian, who were working on the sets of the film Lucky Lady (1975) when Lucas first approached them, to work on the production sets. Christian recounted in 2014: "George came to the set I was doing, it was an old salt factory design and he helped me shovel salt, just like two students in plaid shirts and sneakers. And we spoke and he looked at the set and couldn't believe it wasn't real." They had a conversation with Lucas on what he would like the film to appear like, with them creating the desired sets. Christian said that Lucas "didn't want anything [in Star Wars] to stand out, he wanted it [to look] all real and used. And I said, 'Finally somebody's doing it the right way.'"[48] Lucas described a "used future" concept to the production designers in which all devices, ships, and buildings looked aged and dirty.[10][49][50] Instead of following the traditional sleekness and futuristic architecture of science fiction films that came before, the Star Wars sets were designed to look inhabited and used. Barry said that the director "wants to make it look like its shot on location on your average everyday Death Star or Mos Eisly Spaceport or local cantina." Lucas believed that "what is required for true credibility is a used future", opposing the interpretation of "future in most futurist movies" that "always looks new and clean and shiny."[47] Christian supported Lucas's vision, saying "All science fiction before was very plastic and stupid uniforms and Flash Gordon stuff. Nothing was new. George was going right against that."[48] The designers started working with the director before Star Wars was approved by 20th Century Fox.[48] For four to five months, in a studio in Kensal Rise, England,[48][51] they attempted to plan the creation of the props and sets with "no money". Although Lucas initially provided funds using his earnings from American Graffiti, it was inadequate. As they could not afford to dress the sets, Christian was forced to use unconventional methods and materials to achieve the desired look. He suggested that Lucas use scrap in making the dressings, and the director agreed.[48] Christian said, "I've always had this idea. I used to do it with models when I was a kid. I'd stick things on them and we'd make things look old."[51] Barry, Christian, and their team began designing the props and sets at Elstree Studios.[47] According to Christian, the Millennium Falcon set was the most difficult to build. Christian wanted the interior of the Falcon to look like that of a submarine.[48] He found scrap airplane metal "that no one wanted in those days and bought them".[51] He began his creation process by breaking down jet engines into scrap pieces, giving him the chance to "stick it in the sets in specific ways".[48] It took him several weeks to finish the chess set (which he described as "the most encrusted set") in the hold of the Falcon. The garbage compactor set "was also pretty hard, because I knew I had actors in there and the walls had to come in, and they had to be in dirty water and I had to get stuff that would be light enough so it wouldn't hurt them but also not bobbing around".[48] A total of 30 sets consisting of planets, starships, caves, control rooms, cantinas, and the Death Star corridors were created; all of the nine sound stages at Elstree were used to accommodate them. The massive rebel hangar set was housed at a second sound stage at Shepperton Studios; the stage is the largest in Europe.[47] Filming In 1975, Lucas formed his own visual effects company Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) after discovering that 20th Century Fox's visual effects department had been disbanded. ILM began its work on Star Wars in a warehouse in Van Nuys, California. Most of the visual effects used pioneering digital motion control photography developed by John Dykstra and his team, which created the illusion of size by employing small models and slowly moving cameras.[10] George Lucas tried "to get a cohesive reality" for his feature. However, since the film is a fairy tale, as he had described, "I still wanted it to have an ethereal quality, yet be well composed and, also, have an alien look." He designed the film to have an "extremely bizarre, Gregg Toland-like surreal look with strange over-exposed colors, a lot of shadows, a lot of hot areas." Lucas wanted Star Wars to embrace the combination of "strange graphics of fantasy" and "the feel of a documentary" to impress a distinct look. To achieve this, he hired the British cinematographer Gilbert Taylor.[47] Originally, Lucas's first choice for the position was Geoffrey Unsworth, who also provided the cinematography for Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey.[34] Unsworth was interested in working with the director, and initially accepted the job when it was offered to him by Lucas and Kurtz. However, he eventually withdrew to work on the Vincente Minnelli-directed A Matter of Time (1976) instead, which "really annoy[ed]" Kurtz.[34] Lucas called up for other cinematographers, and eventually chose Taylor, basing his choice on Taylor's cinematography for Dr. Strangelove and A Hard Day's Night (1964). On his decision, Lucas said: "I thought they were good, eccentrically photographed pictures with a strong documentary flavor."[47] Taylor said that Lucas, who was consumed by the details of the complicated production, "avoided all meetings and contact with me from day one, so I read the extra-long script many times and made my own decisions as to how I would shoot the picture." He also "took it upon myself to experiment with photographing the lightsabers and other things onstage before we moved on to our two weeks of location work in Tunisia."[52] During production, Lucas and Taylor—whom Kurtz called "old-school" and "crotchety"[53]—had disputes over filming.[34] With a background in independent filmmaking, Lucas was accustomed to creating most of the elements of the film himself. His lighting suggestions were rejected by an offended Taylor, who felt that Lucas was overstepping his boundaries by giving specific instructions, sometimes even moving lights and cameras himself. Taylor refused to use the soft-focus lenses and gauze Lucas wanted after Fox executives complained about the look.[53] Kurtz stated that "In a couple of scenes [...] rather than saying, 'It looks a bit over lit, can you fix that?', [Lucas would] say, 'turn off this light, and turn off that light.' And Gil would say, 'No, I won't do that, I've lit it the way I think it should be—tell me what's the effect that you want, and I'll make a judgment about what to do with my lights.'"[34] Hotel Sidi Driss, the underground building in Matmata, Tunisia used to film Luke's home Originally, Lucas envisioned the planet of Tatooine, where much of the film would take place, as a jungle planet. Gary Kurtz traveled to the Philippines to scout locations; however, because of the idea of spending months filming in the jungle would make Lucas "itchy", the director refined his vision and made Tatooine a desert planet instead.[54] Kurtz then researched all American, North African, and Middle Eastern deserts, and found Tunisia, near the Sahara desert, as the ideal location.[47] When principal photography began on March 22, 1976 in the Tunisian desert for the scenes on Tatooine, the project faced several problems.[55] Lucas fell behind schedule in the first week of shooting due to malfunctioning props and electronic breakdowns.[55][56] Moreover, a rare Tunisian rainstorm struck the country, which further disrupted filming. Taylor said, "you couldn't really see where the land ended and the sky began. It was all a gray mess, and the robots were just a blur." Given this situation, Lucas requested for heavy filtration, which confused Taylor, who said: "I thought the look of the film should be absolutely clean ... But George saw it differently, so we tried using nets and other diffusion. He asked to set up one shot on the robots with a 300mm, and the sand and sky just mushed together. I told him it wouldn't work, but he said that was the way he wanted to do the entire film, all diffused." This difference was later settled by 20th Century Fox executives, who backed Taylor's suggestion.[57] Filming began in Chott el Djerid, while a construction crew in Tozeur took eight weeks to transform the desert into the desired setting.[47] Other locations included the sand dunes of the Tunisian desert near Nafta, where a scene featuring a giant skeleton of a creature lying in the background as R2-D2 and C-3PO make their way across the sands was filmed.[58] When actor Anthony Daniels wore the C-3PO outfit for the first time in Tunisia, the left leg piece shattered down through the plastic covering his left foot, stabbing him.[56] He also could not see through his costume's eyes, which was covered with gold to prevent corrosion.[54] Abnormal radio signals caused by the Tunisian sands made the radio-controlled R2-D2 models run out of control. Kenny Baker, who portrayed R2-D2, said: "I was incredibly grateful each time an [R2] would actually work right."[54] After several scenes were filmed against the volcanic canyons outside Tozeur, production moved to Matmata to film Luke's home on Tatooine. Lucas chose Hotel Sidi Driss, which is larger than the typical underground dwellings, to shoot the interior of Luke's homestead.[58] Additional scenes for Tatooine were filmed at Death Valley in North America.[59] After completing two and a half weeks of filming in Tunisia,[58] the cast and crew moved into the more controlled environment of Elstree Studios, near London.[56] Difficulties encountered in Tunisia were assumed to cease; however, due to strict British working conditions adhered to on set, a new problem arose: filming had to finish by 5:30 pm, unless Lucas was in the middle of a scene.[19] The interiors were shot in London due to its proximity to North Africa and because of the availability of top technical crew at Elstree Studios. The film studio was the only one of its kind in England or America that could cater nine large stages at the same time and allow the company complete freedom to use its own personnel.[47] Despite Lucas' efforts, his crew had little interest in the film and did not take the project seriously. Most of the crew considered the project a "children's film", rarely took their work seriously, and often found it unintentionally humorous.[10][60] Actor Baker later confessed that he thought the film would be a failure. Harrison Ford found it strange that "there's a princess with weird buns in her hair", and he called Chewbacca a "giant in a monkey suit".[10] Filming at Elstree Studios became another problem for Taylor; the sets John Barry made "were like a coal mine", as the cinematographer described. He said that "they were all black and gray, with really no opportunities for lighting at all." To resolve the problem, he worked the lighting into the sets by chopping in its walls, ceiling and floors. This would result in "a 'cut-out' system of panel lighting", with quartz lamps that could be placed in the holes in the walls, ceiling and floors. His idea was supported by the Fox studio, which agreed that "we couldn't have this 'black hole of Calcutta'". The lighting approach Taylor devised "allowed George to shoot in almost any direction without extensive relighting, which gave him more freedom."[57] In total, filming the scenes in England took 14 and a half weeks.[58] Tikal, Guatemala, which served as the setting of the rebel base. The moon Yavin 4, which acted as the rebel base in the film, was filmed in the Mayan temples at Tikal, Guatemala. Lucas selected the location as a potential filming site after seeing a poster of it hanging at a travel agency while he was filming in England. This inspired him to send a film crew to Guatemala in March 1977 to shoot scenes. While filming in Tikal, the crew paid locals with a six pack of beer to watch over the camera equipment for several days.[61] Lucas rarely spoke to the actors, who felt that he expected too much of them while providing little direction. His directions to the actors usually consisted of the words "faster" and "more intense".[10] Kurtz stated that "it happened a lot where he would just say, 'Let's try it again a little bit faster.' That was about the only instruction he'd give anybody. A lot of actors don't mind—they don't care, they just get on with it. But some actors really need a lot of pampering and a lot of feedback, and if they don't get it, they get paranoid that they might not be doing a good job." Kurtz has said that Lucas "wasn't gregarious, he's very much a loner and very shy, so he didn't like large groups of people, he didn't like working with a large crew, he didn't like working with a lot of actors."[34] Ladd offered Lucas some of the only support from the studio; he dealt with scrutiny from board members over the rising budget and complex screenplay drafts.[10][56] Initially, Fox approved $8 million for the project; Gary Kurtz said: "we proceeded to pick a production plan and do a more final budget with a British art department and look for locations in North Africa, and kind of pulled together some things. Then, it was obvious that 8 million wasn't going to do it—they had approved 8 million." After requests from the team that "it had to be more", the executives "got a bit scared".[34] For two weeks, Lucas and his crew "didn't really do anything except kind of pull together new budget figures". At the same time, after production fell behind schedule, Ladd told Lucas he had to finish production within a week or he would be forced to shut down production. Kurtz said that "it came out to be like 9.8 or .9 or something like that, and in the end they just said, 'Yes, that's okay, we'll go ahead.'"[34] The crew split into three units, with those units led by Lucas, Kurtz, and production supervisor Robert Watts. Under the new system, the project met the studio's deadline.[10][56] During production, the cast attempted to make Lucas laugh or smile, as he often appeared depressed. At one point, the project became so demanding that Lucas was diagnosed with hypertension and exhaustion and was warned to reduce his stress level.[10][56] Post-production was equally stressful due to increasing pressure from 20th Century Fox. Moreover, Mark Hamill's car accident left his face visibly scarred, which restricted re-shoots.[56] Post-production Steven Spielberg claimed to have been the only person in the audience to have enjoyed the film in its early cut screening. Star Wars was originally slated for release on Christmas 1976; however, its production delays pushed the film's release to summer 1977. Already anxious about meeting his deadline, Lucas was shocked when editor John Jympson's first cut of the film was a "complete disaster". According to an article in Star Wars Insider No. 41 by David West Reynolds, this first edit of Star Wars contained about 30–40% different footage from the final version. After attempting to persuade Jympson to cut the film his way, Lucas replaced him with Paul Hirsch and Richard Chew. He also allowed his then-wife, Marcia Lucas, to aid the editing process while she was cutting the film New York, New York (1977) with Lucas's friend Martin Scorsese. Richard Chew found the film to have a lethargic pace and to have been cut in a by-the-book manner: scenes were played out in master shots that flowed into close-up coverage. He found that the pace was dictated by the actors instead of the cuts. Hirsch and Chew worked on two reels simultaneously.[10] Jympson's original assembly contained a large amount of footage which differed from the final cut of the film, including several alternate takes and a number of scenes which were subsequently deleted to improve the narrative pace. The most significant material cut was a series of scenes from the first part of the film which served to introduce the character of Luke Skywalker. These early scenes, set in Anchorhead on the planet Tatooine, presented the audience with Luke's everyday life among his friends as it is affected by the space battle above the planet; they also introduced the character of Biggs Darklighter, Luke's closest friend who departs to join the Rebellion.[62] Chew explained the rationale behind removing these scenes as a narrative decision: "In the first five minutes, we were hitting everybody with more information than they could handle. There were too many story lines to keep straight: the robots and the Princess, Vader, Luke. So we simplified it by taking out Luke and Biggs".[63] After viewing a rough cut, Alan Ladd likened these Anchorhead scenes to "American Graffiti in outer space". Lucas was looking for a way of accelerating the storytelling, and removing Luke's early scenes would distinguish Star Wars from his earlier teenage drama and "get that American Graffiti feel out of it".[62] Lucas also stated that he wanted to move the narrative focus to C-3PO and R2-D2: "At the time, to have the first half-hour of the film be mainly about robots was a bold idea."[64][65] Meanwhile, Industrial Light & Magic was struggling to achieve unprecedented special effects. The company had spent half of its budget on four shots that Lucas deemed unacceptable.[56] Moreover, theories surfaced that the workers at ILM lacked discipline, forcing Lucas to intervene frequently to ensure that they were on schedule. With hundreds of uncompleted shots remaining, ILM was forced to finish a year's work in six months. Lucas inspired ILM by editing together aerial dogfights from old war films, which enhanced the pacing of the scenes.[10] During the chaos of production and post-production, the team made decisions about character voicing and sound effects. Sound designer Ben Burtt had created a library of sounds that Lucas referred to as an "organic soundtrack". Blaster sounds were a modified recording of a steel cable, under tension, being struck. The lightsaber sound effect was developed by Burtt as a combination of the hum of idling interlock motors in aged movie projectors and interference caused by a television set on a shieldless microphone. Burtt discovered the latter accidentally as he was looking for a buzzing, sparking sound to add to the projector-motor hum.[66] For Chewbacca's growls, Burtt recorded and combined sounds made by dogs, bears, lions, tigers, and walruses to create phrases and sentences. Lucas and Burtt created the robotic voice of R2-D2 by filtering their voices through an electronic synthesizer. Darth Vader's breathing was achieved by Burtt breathing through the mask of a scuba regulator implanted with a microphone.[67] In February 1977, Lucas screened an early cut of the film for Fox executives, several director friends, along with Roy Thomas and Howard Chaykin of Marvel Comics who were preparing a Star Wars comic book. The cut had a different crawl from the finished version and used Prowse's voice for Darth Vader. It also lacked most special effects; hand-drawn arrows took the place of blaster beams, and when the Millennium Falcon fought TIE fighters, the film cut to footage of World War II dogfights.[68] The reactions of the directors present, such as Brian De Palma, John Milius, and Steven Spielberg, disappointed Lucas. Spielberg, who claimed to have been the only person in the audience to have enjoyed the film, believed that the lack of enthusiasm was due to the absence of finished special effects. Lucas later said that the group was honest and seemed bemused by the film. In contrast, Ladd and the other studio executives loved the film; Gareth Wigan told Lucas: "This is the greatest film I've ever seen" and cried during the screening. Lucas found the experience shocking and rewarding, having never gained any approval from studio executives before.[10] The delays increased the budget from $8 million to $11 million.[69] With the project $2 million over budget, Lucas was forced to make numerous artistic compromises to complete Star Wars. Ladd reluctantly agreed to release an extra $20,000 funding and in early 1977 second unit filming completed a number of sequences including exterior desert shots for Tatooine in Death Valley and China Lake Acres in California, and exterior Yavin jungle shots in Guatemala, along with additional studio footage to complete the Mos Eisley Cantina sequence. Lucas had planned to rework a confrontation scene between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt in Mos Eisley Spaceport by compositing a stop-motion animated model of Jabba to replace the actor Declan Mulholland, but with time and money running out, Lucas reluctantly decided to cut the scene entirely. The sequence was later re-instated in the 1997 Special Edition with a computer-generated version of Jabba.[70][71] Soundtrack Main article: Star Wars (soundtrack) Original vinyl release On the recommendation of his friend Steven Spielberg, Lucas hired composer John Williams. Williams had worked with Spielberg on the film Jaws, for which he won an Academy Award. Lucas felt that the film would portray visually foreign worlds, but that the musical score would give the audience an emotional familiarity; he wanted a grand musical sound for Star Wars, with leitmotifs to provide distinction. Therefore, he assembled his favorite orchestral pieces for the soundtrack, until Williams convinced him that an original score would be unique and more unified. However, a few of Williams' pieces were influenced by the tracks given to him by Lucas: the "Main Title Theme" was inspired by the theme from the 1942 film Kings Row, scored by Erich Wolfgang Korngold; and the track "Dune Sea of Tatooine" drew from the soundtrack of Bicycle Thieves, scored by Alessandro Cicognini. In March 1977, Williams conducted the London Symphony Orchestra to record the Star Wars soundtrack in 12 days.[10] The original soundtrack was released as a double LP in 1977 by 20th Century Records. 20th Century Fox released The Story of Star Wars that same year, which adapted the film and presented it as a narrated story with music, dialogue, and sound effects from the original film. The American Film Institute's list of best film scores ranks the Star Wars soundtrack at number one.[72] Cinematic and literary allusions This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (March 2015) See also: Star Wars sources and analogues War films such as the The Dam Busters and 633 Squadron, which used aircraft like the Avro Lancaster (top) and the Mosquito (bottom), respectively, were inspirations for the battle sequences According to Lucas, different concepts of the film were inspired by numerous sources, such as Beowulf and King Arthur for the origins of myth and religion.[10] Lucas originally intended to rely heavily on the 1930s Flash Gordon film serials; however, he resorted to Akira Kurosawa's film The Hidden Fortress, and Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces, because of copyright issues with Flash Gordon.[73] Star Wars features several parallels to Flash Gordon, such as the conflict between Rebels and Imperial Forces, the wipes between scenes, the fusion of futuristic technology and traditional magic, and the famous opening crawl that begins each film.[74][75] The film has also been compared to The Wizard of Oz.[76][77] The influence of Kurosawa's 1958 film can be seen in the relationship between C-3PO and R2-D2, which evolved from the two bickering peasants in The Hidden Fortress, and a Japanese family crest seen in the earlier film is similar to the Imperial Crest. Star Wars also borrows heavily from another Kurosawa film, Yojimbo.[74] In both films, several men threaten the hero, bragging about how wanted they are by the authorities, and have an arm being cut off by a blade; Kuwabatake Sanjuro (portrayed by Toshiro Mifune) is offered "... twenty-five ryo now, twenty-five when you complete the mission ...", whereas Han Solo is offered "Two thousand now, plus fifteen when we reach Alderaan." Tatooine is similar to Arrakis from Frank Herbert's Dune series. Arrakis is the only known source of a longevity spice called Melange. References to "spice", various illegal stimulant drugs, occur throughout the last three films of the Star Wars saga. In the original film, Han Solo is a spice smuggler who has been through the spice mines of Kessel. In the conversation at Obi-Wan Kenobi's home, between Obi-Wan and Luke, Luke expresses a belief that his father was a navigator on a spice freighter. Other similarities include those between Princess Leia and Princess Alia, and between Jedi mind tricks and "The Voice", a controlling ability used by Bene Gesserit. In passing, Uncle Owen and Aunt Beru are "moisture farmers"; in Dune, dew collectors are used by Fremen to "... provide a small but reliable source of water."[78] Frank Herbert reported that "David Lynch, [director of the 1984 film Dune] had trouble with the fact that Star Wars used up so much of Dune." The pair found "... sixteen points of identity ..." and they calculated that, "... the odds against coincidence produced a number larger than the number of stars in the universe."[79] The Death Star assault scene was modeled after the World War II film The Dam Busters (1955), in which Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers fly along heavily defended reservoirs and aim bouncing bombs at dams, in order to cripple the heavy industry of Germany's Ruhr region. Some of the dialogue in The Dam Busters is repeated in the Star Wars climax; Gilbert Taylor also filmed the special effects sequences in The Dam Busters. In addition, the sequence was partially inspired by the climax of the film 633 Squadron (1964), directed by Walter Grauman,[80] in which RAF de Havilland Mosquitos attack a German heavy water plant by flying down a narrow fjord to drop special bombs at a precise point, while avoiding anti-aircraft guns and German fighters. Clips from both films were included in Lucas's temporary dogfight footage version of the sequence.[81] The opening shot of Star Wars, in which a detailed spaceship fills the screen overhead, is a reference to the scene introducing the interplanetary spacecraft Discovery One in Stanley Kubrick's seminal 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey. The earlier big-budget science fiction film influenced the look of Star Wars in many other ways, including the use of EVA pods and hexagonal corridors. The Death Star has a docking bay reminiscent of the one on the orbiting space station in 2001.[82] Although golden and male, C-3PO was inspired by the robot Maria, the Maschinenmensch from Fritz Lang's 1927 film Metropolis.[83] Release Premiere and initial release Lucasfilm hired Charles Lippincott as marketing director for Star Wars. As 20th Century Fox gave little support for marketing beyond licensing T-shirts and posters, Lippincott was forced to look elsewhere. He secured deals with Marvel Comics for a comic book adaptation, and with Del Rey Books for a novelization. A fan of science fiction, he used his contacts to promote the film at the San Diego Comic-Con and elsewhere within science fiction fandom.[10][35] Worried that Star Wars would be beaten out by other summer films, such as Smokey and the Bandit, 20th Century Fox moved the release date to May 25, the Wednesday before Memorial Day. However, fewer than 40 theaters ordered the film to be shown. In response, 20th Century Fox demanded that theaters order Star Wars if they wanted an eagerly anticipated film based on the best-selling novel The Other Side of Midnight.[10] "On opening day I ... did a radio call-in show ... this caller, was really enthusiastic and talking about the movie in really deep detail. I said, 'You know a lot about the film.' He said, 'Yeah, yeah, I've seen it four times already.'" —Producer Gary Kurtz, on when he realized Star Wars had become a cultural phenomenon[84] Star Wars debuted on Wednesday, May 25, 1977, in fewer than 32 theaters, and eight more on Thursday and Friday. Kurtz said in 2002, "That would be laughable today." It immediately broke box office records, effectively becoming one of the first blockbuster films, and Fox accelerated plans to broaden its release.[35][85] Lucas himself was not able to predict how successful Star Wars would be. After visiting the set of the Steven Spielberg–directed Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Lucas was sure Close Encounters would outperform the yet-to-be-released Star Wars at the box office. Spielberg disagreed, and felt Lucas's Star Wars would be the bigger hit. Lucas proposed they trade 2.5% of the profit on each other's films; Spielberg took the trade, and still receives 2.5% of the profits from Star Wars.[86] Fearing that Star Wars would fail, Lucas had made plans to be in Hawaii with his wife Marcia. Having forgotten that the film would open that day,[87] he spent most of Wednesday in a sound studio in Los Angeles. When Lucas went out for lunch with Marcia, they encountered a long line of people along the sidewalks leading to Mann's Chinese Theatre, waiting to see Star Wars.[56] He was still skeptical of the film's success despite Ladd and the studio's enthusiastic reports. While in Hawaii, it was not until he watched Walter Cronkite discuss the gigantic crowds for Star Wars on the CBS Evening News that Lucas realized he had become very wealthy (Francis Ford Coppola, who needed money to finish Apocalypse Now, sent a telegram to Lucas's hotel asking for funding).[87] Even technical crew members, such as model makers, were asked for autographs, and cast members became instant household names;[10] when Ford visited a record store to buy an album, enthusiastic fans tore half his shirt off.[87] The film was a huge success for the studio, and was credited for reinvigorating it. Within three weeks of its release, 20th Century Fox's stock price had doubled to a record high. Prior to 1977, 20th Century Fox's greatest annual profits were $37 million, while in 1977, the company broke that record by posting a profit of $79 million.[10] Although the film's cultural neutrality helped it to gain international success, Ladd became anxious during the premiere in Japan. After the screening, the audience was silent, leading him to fear that the film would be unsuccessful. Ladd was later told by his local contacts that, in Japan, silence was the greatest honor to a film, and the subsequent strong box office returns confirmed its popularity.[10] When Star Wars made an unprecedented second opening at Mann's Chinese Theatre on August 3, 1977, after William Friedkin's Sorcerer failed, thousands of people attended a ceremony in which C-3PO, R2-D2 and Darth Vader placed their footprints in the theater's forecourt.[85][10] At that time Star Wars was playing in 1,096 theaters in the United States.[88] Approximately 60 theaters played the film continuously for over a year;[89] in 1978, Lucasfilm distributed "Birthday Cake" posters to those theaters for special events on May 25, the one-year anniversary of the film's release.[90] Later releases The 1997 theatrical release poster of the new Special Edition version of the film The film was originally released as Star Wars, without "Episode IV" or the subtitle A New Hope.[19] The subtitles were added starting with the film's theatrical re-release on April 10, 1981.[5][19] Star Wars was re-released theatrically in 1978; 1979; 1981; 1982; and, with additional scenes and enhanced special effects (further subtitled as the Special Edition), in 1997.[91] After ILM used computer-generated effects for Steven Spielberg's 1993 film Jurassic Park, Lucas concluded that digital technology had caught up to his original vision for Star Wars.[10] For the film's 20th anniversary in 1997, Star Wars was digitally remastered and re-released to movie theaters, along with The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, under the campaign title Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. The Special Edition contained visual shots and scenes that were unachievable in the original release due to financial, technological, and time constraints; one such scene involved a meeting between Han Solo and Jabba the Hutt.[10] The process of creating the new visual effects for Star Wars was featured in the Academy Award-nominated IMAX documentary film, Special Effects: Anything Can Happen, directed by Star Wars sound designer, Ben Burtt.[92] Although most changes were minor or cosmetic in nature, some fans believe that Lucas degraded the film with the additions.[93] A particularly controversial change in which a bounty hunter named Greedo shoots first when confronting Han Solo has inspired T-shirts brandishing the phrase "Han Shot First".[94] Star Wars required extensive restoration before Lucas's Special Edition modifications could be attempted. It was discovered that in addition to the negative motion picture stocks commonly used on feature films, Lucas had also used internegative film, a reversal stock which deteriorated faster than negative stocks did. This meant that the entire printing negative had to be disassembled, and the CRI (color reversal internegative) portions cleaned separately from the negative portions. Once the cleaning was complete, the film was scanned into the computer for restoration. In many cases, entire scenes had to be reconstructed from their individual elements. Fortunately, digital compositing technology allowed them to correct for problems such as alignment of mattes, "blue-spill", and so forth.[95] Though the original Star Wars was selected by the National Film Registry of the United States Library of Congress in 1989,[96] it is unclear whether a copy of the 1977 theatrical sequence or the 1997 Special Edition has been archived by the NFR, or indeed if any copy has been provided by Lucasfilm and accepted by the Registry.[97][98] While the agency has a mandate to register films for preservation, it has no authority to secure its selections from authors or copyright holders.[99] Home media Star Wars debuted on Betamax,[100] LaserDisc,[101] Video 2000, and VHS[102][103] between the 1980s and 1990s by CBS/Fox Video. The final issue of the original theatrical release (pre-Special Edition) to VHS format occurred in 1995, as part of "Last Chance to Own the Original" campaign, available as part of a trilogy set and as a standalone purchase.[104] The film was released for the first time on DVD on September 21, 2004, in a box set with The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi, and a bonus disc of supplementary material. The films were digitally restored and remastered, and more changes were made by George Lucas. The DVD features a commentary track from Lucas, Ben Burtt, Dennis Muren, and Carrie Fisher. The bonus disc contains the documentary Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy, three featurettes, teasers, theatrical trailers, TV spots, still galleries, an exclusive preview of Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, a playable Xbox demo of the LucasArts game Star Wars: Battlefront, and a "Making Of" documentary on the Episode III video game.[105] The set was reissued in December 2005 as part of a three-disc limited edition boxed set without the bonus disc.[106] The trilogy was re-released on separate two-disc limited edition DVD sets from September 12 to December 31, 2006, and again in a limited edition tin box set on November 4, 2008;[107] the original versions of the films were added as bonus material. The release was met with criticism as the unaltered versions were from the 1993 non-anamorphic LaserDisc masters and were not re-transferred using modern video standards. The transfer led to problems with colors and digital image jarring.[108] All six Star Wars films were released by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment on Blu-ray Disc on September 16, 2011 in three different editions, with A New Hope available in both a box set of the original trilogy[109][110] and with the other five films on Star Wars: The Complete Saga, which includes nine discs and over 40 hours of special features.[111] The original theatrical versions of the films were not included in the box set; however, the new 2011 revisions of the trilogy were leaked a month prior to release, inciting controversy the new changes made to these movies and causing an online uproar against Lucas.[112] 20th Century Fox owned full rights to the original film until they sold it to Lucas in 1998 in exchange for a lower distribution fee for the prequels and broadcast rights to Episode I.[113] In late 2012, The Walt Disney Company announced a deal to acquire Lucasfilm for $4.05 billion, with approximately half in cash and half in shares of Disney stock.[114] Although Disney will now possess the ownership rights to all six Star Wars films, under a previous deal with Lucasfilm, the full distribution rights to A New Hope will remain with Fox in perpetuity, while the physical distribution arrangements for the remaining films are set to expire in 2020 (Lucasfilm had retained the television and digital distribution rights to all Star Wars films produced after the original).[115][116] On April 7, 2015, the Walt Disney Studios, 20th Century Fox, and Lucasfilm jointly announced the digital releases of the six released Star Wars films. Fox released A New Hope for digital download on April 10, 2015 (while Disney released the other five films).[116][117] Reception Box office Star Wars remains one of the most financially successful films of all time. The film earned $1,554,475 through its opening weekend ($6.05 million in 2014 dollars), building up to $7 million weekends as it entered wide release ($27.2 million in 2014 dollars).[3] It replaced Jaws as the highest-earning film in North America just six months into release,[118] eventually earning over $220 million during its initial theatrical run ($856 million in 2014 dollars).[119] Star Wars entered international release towards the end of the year, and in 1978 added the worldwide record to its domestic one,[120] earning $410 million in total.[121] Reissues in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 brought its cumulative gross in Canada and the U.S. to $323 million,[122] and extended its global earnings to $530 million.[123] The film remained the highest-grossing film of all time until E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial broke that record in 1983.[124] Following the release of the Special Edition in 1997,[125] Star Wars briefly reclaimed the North American record before losing it again the following year to Titanic.[126] In total, the film has earned $775,398,007 worldwide (including $460,998,007 in North America alone).[3] Adjusted for inflation, it has earned over $2.5 billion worldwide at 2011 prices, making it the most successful franchise film of all time.[127] According to Guinness World Records, the film ranks as the third-highest-grossing film when adjusting for inflation;[128] at the North American box office, it ranks second behind Gone with the Wind on the inflation-adjusted list.[129] Critical response "What makes the Star War experience unique, though, is that it happens on such an innocent and often funny level. It's usually violence that draws me so deeply into a movie — violence ranging from the psychological torment of a Bergman character to the mindless crunch of a shark's jaws. Maybe movies that scare us find the most direct route to our imaginations. But there's hardly any violence at all in Star Wars (and even then it's presented as essentially bloodless swashbuckling). Instead, there's entertainment so direct and simple that all of the complications of the modern movie seem to vaporize." —Roger Ebert, in his review for the Chicago Sun-Times[130] The film was met with critical acclaim upon its release. In his 1977 review, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "an out-of-body experience", compared its special effects to those of 2001: A Space Odyssey, and opined that the true strength of the film was its "pure narrative".[130] Vincent Canby of The New York Times called the film "the movie that's going to entertain a lot of contemporary folk who have a soft spot for the virtually ritualized manners of comic-book adventure" and "the most elaborate, most expensive, most beautiful movie serial ever made."[131] A.D. Murphy of Variety described the film as "magnificent" and claimed George Lucas had succeeded in his attempt to create the "biggest possible adventure fantasy" based on the serials and older action epics from his childhood.[132] Writing for The Washington Post, Gary Arnold gave the film a positive review, writing that the film "is a new classic in a rousing movie tradition: a space swashbuckler."[133] However, the film was not without its detractors: Pauline Kael of The New Yorker criticized Star Wars, stating that "there's no breather in the picture, no lyricism", and that it had no "emotional grip".[134] British press for the film was positive. Derek Malcolm of The Guardian concluded that the film "plays enough games to satisfy the most sophisticated."[135] The Daily Telegraph ' s Adrian Berry said that Star Wars "is the best such film since 2001 and in certain respects it is one of the most exciting ever made." He described the plot as "unpretentious and pleasantly devoid of any 'message.'"[136] In his review for BBC, Matt Ford awarded the film five out of five stars and wrote, "Star Wars isn't the best film ever made, but it is universally loved."[137] The film continues to receive critical acclaim from modern critics. The film review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes rates it 94% positive based on 82 reviews with an overall rating of 8.5/10. Its consensus states in summary, "A legendary expansive and ambitious start to the sci-fi saga, George Lucas opens our eyes to the possibilities of blockbuster film-making and things have never been the same."[138] Metacritic reports an aggregate score of 92 out of 100 (based on 14 reviews), indicating "universal acclaim".[139] In his 1997 review of the film's 20th anniversary release, Michael Wilmington of the Chicago Tribune gave the film four out of four stars, saying, "A grandiose and violent epic with a simple and whimsical heart."[140] A San Francisco Chronicle staff member described the film as "a thrilling experience."[141] Gene Siskel, writing for the Chicago Tribune in 1999, said, "What places it a sizable cut about the routine is its spectacular visual effects, the best since Stanley Kubrick's 2001."[142] Andrew Collins of Empire magazine awarded the film five out of five and said, "Star Wars ' timeless appeal lies in its easily identified, universal archetypes—goodies to root for, baddies to boo, a princess to be rescued and so on—and if it is most obviously dated to the 70s by the special effects, so be it."[143] In his 2009 review, Robert Hatch of The Nation called the film "an outrageously successful, what will be called a 'classic,' compilation of nonsense, largely derived but thoroughly reconditioned. I doubt that anyone will ever match it, though the imitations must already be on the drawing boards."[144] In a more critical review, Jonathan Rosenbaum of the Chicago Reader stated, "None of these characters has any depth, and they're all treated like the fanciful props and settings."[145] Peter Keough of the Boston Phoenix said, "Star Wars is a junkyard of cinematic gimcracks not unlike the Jawas' heap of purloined, discarded, barely functioning droids."[146] Accolades Alec Guinness, shown here in 1973, received multiple award nominations, including one from the Academy, for his performance as Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi The film garnered numerous accolades after its release. Star Wars won six competitive Academy Awards at the 50th Academy Awards: Best Art Direction, Best Costume Design, Best Film Editing, Best Original Score, Best Sound and Best Visual Effects. A Special Achievement for Sound Effects Editing went to sound designer Ben Burtt[147] and a Scientific and Engineering Award went to John Dykstra for the development of the Dykstraflex Camera (shared with Alvah J. Miller and Jerry Jeffress, who were both granted for the engineering of the Electronic Motion Control System).[148] Additional nominations included Alec Guinness for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and George Lucas for Best Original Screenplay, Best Director, and Best Picture, which were instead awarded to Woody Allen's Annie Hall.[147] At the 35th Golden Globe Awards, the film was nominated for Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor (Alec Guinness), and it won the award for Best Score.[149] It received six British Academy Film Awards nominations: Best Film, Best Editing, Best Costume Design, Best Production/Art Design, Best Sound, and Best Score; the film won in the latter two categories.[150] John Williams' soundtrack album won the Grammy Award for Best Album of Original Score for a Motion Picture or Television Program,[151] and the film attained the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.[152] The film also received twelve nominations at the Saturn Awards, winning nine: Best Science Fiction Film, Best Direction and Best Writing for George Lucas, Best Supporting Actor for Alec Guinness, Best Music for John Williams, Best Costume for John Mollo, Best Make-up for Rick Baker and Stuart Freeborn, Best Special Effects for John Dykstra and John Stears, and Outstanding Editing for Paul Hirsch, Marcia Lucas and Richard Chew.[153] Legacy The original Star Wars trilogy is considered one of the best film trilogies in history.[154] Lucas has often stated that the entire trilogy was intended to be considered one film. However, he said that his story material for Star Wars was too long for a single film, prompting Lucas to split the story into multiple films.[10][155][156] Lucas also stated that the story evolved over time and that "There was never a script completed that had the entire story as it exists now [in 1983] ... As the stories unfolded, I would take certain ideas and save them ... I kept taking out all the good parts, and I just kept telling myself I would make other movies someday."[157] In early interviews, it was suggested the series might comprise nine or twelve films.[158] Star Wars launched the careers of Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, and Carrie Fisher.[10] Ford, who subsequently starred in the Indiana Jones series (1981–2008), Blade Runner (1982), and Witness (1985) after working on the film, told the Daily Mirror that Star Wars "boosted my career", and said, "I think the great luck of my career is that I've made these family movies which are introduced to succeeding generations of kids by their families at the time it seems appropriate."[159] The film has spawned a series of films consisting of two trilogies (including the original film), and an extensive media franchise called the Expanded Universe including books, television series, computer and video games, and comic books. All of the main films have been box office successes, with the overall box office revenue generated by the Star Wars films (including the theatrical The Clone Wars) totaling $4.38 billion,[160] making it the fifth highest-grossing film series.[161] The film also spawned the Star Wars Holiday Special, which debuted on CBS on November 17, 1978 and is often considered a failure; Lucas himself disowned it.[162] The special has never been aired after its original broadcast, and it has never been officially released on home video. However, many bootleg copies exist, and the special has consequently become something of an underground legend.[163] In popular culture See also: Cultural impact of Star Wars Star Wars and its ensuing film installments have been explicitly referenced and satirized across a wide range of media. Hardware Wars, released in 1978, was one of the first fan films to parody Star Wars.[164] It received positive critical reaction, went to earn over $1 million, and is one of Lucas's favorite Star Wars spoofs.[165][166][167] Writing for The New York Times, Frank DeCaro said, "Star Wars littered pop culture of the late 1970s with a galaxy of space junk."[168] He cited Quark (a short-lived 1977 sitcom that parodied the science fiction genre)[168] and Donny & Marie (a 1970s variety show that produced a 10-minute musical adaptation of Star Wars guest starring Daniels and Mayhew)[169] as "television's two most infamous examples".[168] Mel Brooks's Spaceballs, a satirical comic science fiction parody, later came out in 1987 to mixed reviews.[170] Lucas permitted Brooks to make a spoof of the film under "one incredibly big restriction: no action figures."[171] Contemporary animated comedy TV series Family Guy,[172] Robot Chicken,[173] and The Simpsons[174] have produced episodes satirizing the film series. Star Wars, together with Lucas, was also the subject of the 2010 documentary film The People vs. George Lucas that details the issues of filmmaking and fanaticism pertaining to the film franchise and its creator.[175] Many elements of the film have also endured presence in popular culture. The iconic weapon of choice of the Jedi, the lightsaber, was voted as the most popular weapon in film history in a survey of approximately 2,000 film fans.[176] The expressions "Evil empire" and "May the Force be with you" have become part of the popular lexicon.[177] To commemorate the film's 30th anniversary in May 2007, the United States Postal Service issued a set of 15 stamps depicting the characters of the franchise. Approximately 400 mailboxes across the country were also designed to look like R2-D2.[178] Cinematic influence Film critic Roger Ebert wrote in his book The Great Movies, "Like The Birth of a Nation and Citizen Kane, Star Wars was a technical watershed that influenced many of the movies that came after."[8] It began a new generation of special effects and high-energy motion pictures. The film was one of the first films to link genres together to invent a new, high-concept genre for filmmakers to build upon.[8][49] Finally, along with Steven Spielberg's Jaws, it shifted the film industry's focus away from personal filmmaking of the 1970s and towards fast-paced, big-budget blockbusters for younger audiences.[8][10][179] Filmmakers who have said to have been influenced by Star Wars include James Cameron, Dean Devlin, Gareth Edwards,[180] Roland Emmerich, John Lasseter,[181] David Fincher, Peter Jackson, Joss Whedon, Christopher Nolan, Ridley Scott, John Singleton, and Kevin Smith.[49] Scott, Cameron, and Jackson were influenced by Lucas's concept of the "used future" (where vehicles and culture are obviously dated) and extended the concept for their films, such as Scott's science fiction films Alien (1979) and Blade Runner (1982), and Cameron's The Terminator (1984). Jackson used the concept for his production of The Lord of the Rings trilogy to add a sense of realism and believability.[49] Christopher Nolan cited Star Wars as an influence when making the 2010 blockbuster film, Inception.[182] Some critics have blamed Star Wars, as well as Jaws, for ruining Hollywood by shifting its focus from "sophisticated" films such as The Godfather, Taxi Driver, and Annie Hall to films about spectacle and juvenile fantasy.[183] One such critic, Peter Biskind, complained, "When all was said and done, Lucas and Spielberg returned the 1970s audience, grown sophisticated on a diet of European and New Hollywood films, to the simplicities of the pre-1960s Golden Age of movies... They marched backward through the looking-glass."[183][87] In an opposing view, Tom Shone wrote that through Star Wars and Jaws, Lucas and Spielberg "didn't betray cinema at all: they plugged it back into the grid, returning the medium to its roots as a carnival sideshow, a magic act, one big special effect", which was "a kind of rebirth".[179] Recognition In its May 30, 1977 issue, the film's year of release, Time magazine named Star Wars the "Movie of the Year". The publication claimed it was a "big early supporter" of the vision which would become Star Wars. In an article intended for the cover of the issue, Time ' s Gerald Clarke wrote that Star Wars is "a grand and glorious film that may well be the smash hit of 1977, and certainly is the best movie of the year so far. The result is a remarkable confection: a subliminal history of the movies, wrapped in a riveting tale of suspense and adventure, ornamented with some of the most ingenious special effects ever contrived for film." Each of the subsequent films of the Star Wars saga has appeared on the magazine's cover.[184] AFI 100 Years... series AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (1998) – #15[185]AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills (2001) – #27[186]AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains (2003): Han Solo – #14 Hero[187]Obi-Wan Kenobi – #37 Hero[187]Princess Leia – Nominated Hero[188]Luke Skywalker – Nominated Hero[188]AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes (2004): "May the Force be with you." – #8[189]"Help me, Obi-Wan Kenobi. You're my only hope." – Nominated[190]AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores (2005) – #1[72]AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers (2006) – #39[191]AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) (2007) – #13[192]AFI's 10 Top 10 (2008) – #2 Sci-Fi Film[193] American Film Institute[194] Star Wars was voted the second most popular film by Americans in a 2008 nationwide poll conducted by the market research firm, Harris Interactive.[195] Star Wars has also been featured in several high-profile audience polls: in 1997, it ranked as the 10th Greatest American Film on the Los Angeles Daily News Readers' Poll;[196] in 2002, the film and its sequel The Empire Strikes Back were voted as the greatest films ever made in Channel 4's 100 Greatest Films poll;[197] in 2011, it ranked as Best Sci-Fi Film on Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time, a primetime special aired by ABC that counted down the best films as chosen by fans, based on results of a poll conducted by ABC and People magazine; in 2014 the film placed 11th in a poll undertaken by The Hollywood Reporter, which balloted every studio, agency, publicity firm, and production house in the Hollywood region.[198] Reputable publications also have included Star Wars in their best films lists: in 2008, Empire magazine ranked Star Wars at No. 22 on its list of the "500 Greatest Movies of All Time";[199] in 2010, the film ranked among the "All-Time 100" list of the greatest films as chosen by Time magazine film critic Richard Schickel;[200] the film was also placed on a similar list created by The New York Times, "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made";[201] in 2012, the film was included in Sight & Sound ' s prestigious decennial critics poll "Critics' Top 250 Films", ranking at 171st on the list, and in their directors poll at 224th.[202] Lucas's original screenplay was selected by the Writers Guild of America as the 68th greatest of all time.[203] In 1989, the Library of Congress selected Star Wars for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant"[96] (though it remains unclear which edition, if any, the NFR has succeeded in acquiring from Lucasfilm);[97][98] its soundtrack was added to the United States National Recording Registry 15 years later (in 2004).[204] In addition to the film's multiple awards and nominations, Star Wars has also been recognized by the American Film Institute on several of its lists. The film ranks first on 100 Years of Film Scores,[72] second on Top 10 Sci-Fi Films,[193] 15th on 100 Years...100 Movies[185] (ranked 13th on the updated 10th anniversary edition),[192] 27th on 100 Years...100 Thrills,[186] and 39th on 100 Years...100 Cheers.[191] In addition, the quote "May the Force be with you" is ranked eighth on 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes,[189] and Han Solo and Obi-Wan Kenobi are ranked as the 14th and 37th greatest heroes respectively on 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains.[187] Merchandising Main articles: Kenner Star Wars action figures, Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker, Star Wars (comics) and Star Wars (radio) Little Star Wars merchandise was available for several months after the film's debut, as only Kenner Products had accepted marketing director Charles Lippincott's licensing offers. Kenner responded to the sudden demand for toys by selling boxed vouchers in its "empty box" Christmas campaign. Television commercials told children and parents that vouchers within a "Star Wars Early Bird Certificate Package" could be redeemed for four action figures between February and June 1978.[10] Jay West of the Los Angeles Times said that the boxes in the campaign "became the most coveted empty box[es] in the history of retail."[205] In 2012, the Star Wars action figures were inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame.[206] The novelization of the film was published in December 1976, six months before the film was released. The credited author was George Lucas, but the book was revealed to have been ghostwritten by Alan Dean Foster, who later wrote the first Expanded Universe novel, Splinter of the Mind's Eye (1978). The book was first published as Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker; later editions were titled simply Star Wars (1995) and, later, Star Wars: A New Hope (1997), to reflect the retitling of the film. Marketing director Charles Lippincott secured the deal with Del Rey Books to publish the novelization in November 1976. By February 1977, a half-million copies had been sold.[10] Marvel Comics also adapted the film as the first six issues of its licensed Star Wars comic book, with the first issue dated May 1977. Roy Thomas was the writer and Howard Chaykin was the artist of the adaptation. Like the novelization, it contained certain elements, such as the scene with Luke and Biggs, that appeared in the screenplay but not in the finished film.[68] The series was so successful that, according to Jim Shooter, it "single-handedly saved Marvel".[207] In 2013, Dark Horse Comics published a comic adaption of the original screenplay's plot.[208] Lucasfilm adapted the story for a children's book-and-record set. Released in 1979, the 24-page Star Wars read-along book was accompanied by a 33⅓ rpm 7-inch phonograph record. Each page of the book contained a cropped frame from the movie with an abridged and condensed version of the story. The record was produced by Buena Vista Records, and its content was copyrighted by Black Falcon, Ltd., a subsidiary of Lucasfilm "formed to handle the merchandising for Star Wars".[209] The Story of Star Wars was a 1977 record album presenting an abridged version of the events depicted in Star Wars, using dialogue and sound effects from the original film. The recording was produced by George Lucas and Alan Livingston, and was narrated by Roscoe Lee Browne. The script was adapted by E. Jack Kaplan and Cheryl Gard.[citation needed] A radio drama adaptation of the film was written by Brian Daley, directed by John Madden, and produced for and broadcast on the American National Public Radio network in 1981. The adaptation received cooperation from George Lucas, who donated the rights to NPR. John Williams' music and Ben Burtt's sound design were retained for the show; Mark Hamill (Luke Skywalker) and Anthony Daniels (C-3PO) reprised their roles as well. The radio drama featured scenes not seen in the final cut of the film, such as Luke Skywalker's observation of the space battle above Tatooine through binoculars, a skyhopper race, and Darth Vader's interrogation of Princess Leia. In terms of Star Wars canon, the radio drama is given the highest designation (like the screenplay and novelization), G-canon.[210][211] This is a list of comic books set in the fictional Star Wars universe. Dark Horse Comics owned the license to publish Star Wars comics from LucasFilm exclusively from 1991 to 2014. LucasFilm's now-corporate sibling Marvel Comics, which published Star Wars comics from 1977 to 1986, are once again publishing Star Wars titles starting in 2015. The only comics considered canon are those released starting in 2015. For a complete list of Star Wars novels please refer to Star Wars books. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. This list is split into two categories: CANON The new primary Star Wars canon includes all the movie episodes, the television shows Star Wars: The Clone Wars and Star Wars Rebels, books, comics, and video games published after April 2014, and comics published in 2015. These stories are coordinated by the Lucasfilm Story Team to be consistent with both each other and the upcoming films. LEGENDS These books are part of the original Star Wars Expanded Universe, and vary in levels of canonicity. The new films will not be based on these stories, but some parts may still be incorporated into the films. Note: BBY and ABY are the standards of measurement for years in the Star Wars galaxy. BBY stands for years before the Battle of Yavin, which occurred during Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. ABY stands for years after the Battle of Yavin. Contents 1 Star Wars: Canon 1.1 Rise of the Empire Era 1.1.1 Obi-Wan & Anakin1.1.2 Darth Maul: Son of Dathomir1.1.3 Story Before the Force Awakens1.2 Rebellion Era 1.2.1 Star Wars Rebels Comic Strips1.2.2 Kanan1.2.3 Princess Leia1.2.4 Chewbacca1.2.5 Star Wars1.2.6 Darth Vader1.2.7 Vader Down1.2.8 Lando1.3 Era of the New Republic 1.3.1 Shattered Empire1.3.2 C-3PO1.4 Era of The First Order and The Resistance1.5 Unknown Placement2 Star Wars: Legends 2.1 Before the Republic Era (37,000-25,000 BBY) 2.1.1 Dawn of the Jedi2.2 Old Galactic Republic Era a.k.a. The Sith Era (5,000–1,000 BBY) 2.2.1 Tales of the Jedi2.2.2 Knights of the Old Republic2.2.3 Cold War2.2.4 Knight Errant2.2.5 The Battle of Ruusan2.3 Rise of the Empire Era (1,000–0 BBY) 2.3.1 Prelude to War2.3.2 The Phantom Menace2.3.3 The Calm Before the Storm2.3.4 Attack of the Clones/The Clone Wars2.3.5 Revenge of the Sith2.3.6 The Dark Times2.4 The Rebellion Era (0–5 ABY) 2.4.1 A New Hope2.4.2 The Empire Strikes Back2.4.3 Return of the Jedi2.5 New Galactic Republic Era (5–25 ABY)2.6 The New Jedi Order Era (25–37 ABY)2.7 Legacy Era (40 ABY onwards)2.8 Infinities Era (Not within timeline)3 References4 Writers Star Wars: Canon Rise of the Empire Era This era contains stories taking place within 32 and 7 years before Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Obi-Wan & Anakin Star Wars: Obi-Wan & Anakin by Charles Soule (Between 32 and 22 BBY) Obi-Wan & Anakin (Issues #1-5) Darth Maul: Son of Dathomir Star Wars: Darth Maul: Son of Dathomir by Jeremy Barlow (20 BBY) The Enemy of My Enemy (Issue #1)A Tale of Two Apprentices (Issue #2)Proxy War (Issue #3)Showdown on Dathomir (Issue #4) Story Before the Force Awakens Star Wars: Story Before the Force Awakens by Hong Jac-ga Star Wars: Story Before the Force Awakens is a web comic by Korean artist and writer Hong Jac-ga. The strips are currently being translated to English and are available on.[1] An Old Friend (Issue #1) (12 BBY-6 BBY)Meeting the Droids (Issue #2) (6 BBY-0 BBY)Beginning of an Adventure (Issue #3) (0 BBY)Only Hope (Issue #4) (0 BBY)Escape (Issue #5) (0 BBY)Death Star (Issue #6) (0 BBY) Spans the Rise of the Empire Era and the Rebellion Era. Rebellion Era This era contains stories taking place within 6 years before and 4 years after Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Star Wars Rebels Comic Strips Published in the monthly Star Wars Rebels UK Magazine Ring Race (5 BBY)Learning Patience (5 BBY)The fake Jedi (5 BBY)Kallus' Hunt (5 BBY)Return of the Slavers (5 BBY)Eyes on the Prize (5 BBY)Sabotaged Supplies (5 BBY)Ezra's Vision (4 BBY)Senate Perspective (4 BBY) Kanan Star Wars: Kanan by Greg Weisman The Last Padawan, Part I: Fight (Issue #1) (5 BBY; flashbacks to 19 BBY)The Last Padawan, Part II: Flight (Issue #2) (5 BBY; flashbacks to 19 BBY)The Last Padawan, Part III: Pivot (Issue #3) (5 BBY; flashbacks to 19 BBY)The Last Padawan, Part IV: Catch (Issue #4) (5 BBY; flashbacks to 19 BBY)The Last Padawan, Part V: Release (Issue #5) (5 BBY; flashbacks to 19 BBY)The Last Padawan, Epilogue: Haunt (Issue #6) (5 BBY)First Blood (Issues #7-11) (5 BBY; flashbacks to 20 BBY) Princess Leia Star Wars: Princess Leia by Mark Waid (0 ABY) Princess Leia (Issues #1-5) Chewbacca Star Wars: Chewbacca by Gerry Duggan (0 ABY) Chewbacca (Issues #1-5) Star Wars Star Wars by Jason Aaron Skywalker Strikes (Issues #1-6) (0 ABY)From the Journals of Old Ben Kenobi: "The Last of His Breed" (Issue #7) (0 ABY; flashbacks to 11 BBY)Showdown on the Smuggler's Moon (Issues #8-12) (0 ABY)Vader Down, Part III (Issue #13) (0 ABY)Vader Down, Part V (Issue #14) (0 ABY)Annual 1 (Between 0 and 3 ABY) Darth Vader Star Wars: Darth Vader by Kieron Gillen Vader (Issues #1-6) (0 ABY)Shadows and Secrets (Issues #7-12) (0 ABY)Vader Down, Part II (Issue #13) (0 ABY)Vader Down, Part IV (Issue #14) (0 ABY)Vader Down, Part VI (Issue #15) (0 ABY)Annual 1 (Between 0 and 3 ABY) Vader Down Star Wars: Vader Down by Jason Aaron and Kieron Gillen (0 ABY) Vader Down is a six-issue crossover event series between Star Wars and Darth Vader. Vader Down, Part I (Issue #1)Vader Down, Part II (Issue #2; Issue #13 of Darth Vader)Vader Down, Part III (Issue #3; Issue #13 of Star Wars)Vader Down, Part IV (Issue #4; Issue #14 of Darth Vader)Vader Down, Part V (Issue #5; Issue #14 of Star Wars)Vader Down, Part VI (Issue #6; Issue #15 of Darth Vader) Lando Star Wars: Lando by Charles Soule (Between 0 ABY and 3 ABY) Lando (Issues #1-5) Era of the New Republic This era contains stories taking place within 4 and 34 years after Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Shattered Empire Star Wars: Shattered Empire by Greg Rucka (4 ABY) Shattered Empire (Issues #1-4) C-3PO Star Wars Special: C-3PO 1 by James Robinson (After 4 ABY) One-shot comic Era of The First Order and The Resistance This era contains stories taking place approximately 34 years after Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Unknown Placement This section contains upcoming stories that do not yet have a known placement. Star Wars: Legends Before the Republic Era (37,000-25,000 BBY) Dawn of the Jedi 36,453 BBY Force Storm by John Ostrander (Dawn of the Jedi #1-5)The Prisoner of Bogan by John Ostrander (Dawn of the Jedi #6-10)The Force War by John Ostrander (Dawn of the Jedi #11-15) Old Galactic Republic Era a.k.a. The Sith Era (5,000–1,000 BBY) Tales of the Jedi 5,000 BBY Tales of the Jedi: Golden Age of the Sith by Kevin J. Anderson 4,990 BBY Tales of the Jedi: The Fall of the Sith Empire by Kevin J. Anderson 4,000 BBY Tales of the Jedi: Knights of the Old Republic by Tom Veitch 3,998 BBY Tales of the Jedi: The Freedon Nadd Uprising by Tom Veitch 3,996 BBY Tales of the Jedi: Dark Lords of the Sith by Tom Veitch and Kevin J. AndersonTales of the Jedi: The Sith War by Kevin J. Anderson 3,993 BBY Shadows and Light by Joshua Ortega (published in Tales #23) 3,986 BBY Tales of the Jedi: Redemption by Kevin J. Anderson Knights of the Old Republic 3,964 BBY Crossroads by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #0, published in the Knights of the Old Republic / Rebellion Flip Book)Commencement by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #1–6)Flashpoint by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #7–8, 10) 3,963 BBY Flashpoint Interlude: Homecoming by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #9)Reunion by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #11–12)Days of Fear by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #13–15)Nights of Anger by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #16–18)Daze of Hate by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #19–21)Knights of Suffering by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #22–24)Vector by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #25–28)Exalted by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #29-30)Turnabout by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #31)Vindication by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #32-35)Prophet Motive by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #36-37)Faithful Execution by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #38)Dueling Ambitions by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #39-41)Masks by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #42)The Reaping by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #43-44)Destroyer by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #45-46)Demon by John Jackson Miller (Knights of the Old Republic #47-50) 3,962 BBY Knights of the Old Republic: War by John Jackson Miller 3,952 BBY Unseen, Unheard by Chris Avellone (published in Tales #24) Cold War 3,678 BBY The Old Republic: Blood of the Empire by Alexander Freed 3,653 BBY The Old Republic: Threat of Peace by Rob Chestney 3,643 BBY The Old Republic: The Lost Suns by Alexander Freed 2,975 BBY Lost Tribe of the Sith: Spiral by John Jackson Miller Knight Errant 1,032 BBY Aflame by John Jackson Miller (Knight Errant #1-5)Deluge by John Jackson Miller (Knight Errant #6-10)Escape by John Jackson Miller (Knight Errant #11-15) The Battle of Ruusan 1,000 BBY Jedi vs. Sith by Darko Macan Rise of the Empire Era (1,000–0 BBY) Prelude to War 1000 BBY The Apprentice by Mike Denning (published in Tales #17) 996 BBY All For You by Adam Gallardo (published in Tales #17) 700 BBY Heart of Darkness by Paul Lee (published in Tales #16) 245 BBY Yaddle's Tale: The One Below by Dean Motter (published in Tales #5) 67 BBY Vow of Justice by Jan Strnad (published in Star Wars: Republic #4–6) 58 BBY Stones by Haden Blackman (published in Tales #13) 53 BBY Jedi - The Dark Side by Scott Allie 45 BBY Survivors by Jim Krueger (published in Tales #13)George R. Binks by Dave McCaig (published in Tales #20) 44 BBY Mythology by Chris Eliopoulos (published in Tales #14) 43 BBY The Secret of Tet Ami by Fabian Nicieza (published in Tales #13) 38 BBY Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan: The Aurorient Express by Mike Kennedy 37 BBY Once Bitten by C. B. Cebulski (published in Tales #12) 36 BBY Children of the Force by Jason Hall (published in Tales #13)Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan: Last Stand on Ord Mantell by Ryder WindhamAurra's Song by Dean Motter (published in Dark Horse Presents Annual 2000) 34 BBY Nameless by Christian Read (published in Tales #10) 33 BBY Marked by Rob Williams (published in Tales #24)Urchins by Stan Sakai (published in Tales #14)Jedi Council: Acts of War by Randy StradleyA Summer's Dream by Terry Moore (published in Tales #5)Life, Death, and the Living Force by Jim Woodring (published in Tales #1)Incident at Horn Station by Dan Jolley (published in Tales #2) 32.5 BBY Prelude to Rebellion by Jan Strnad (Star Wars: Republic #1–6)Single Cell by Haden Blackman (published in Tales #7)Darth Maul by Ron MarzThe Death of Captain Tarpals by Ryder Windham (published in Tales #3) The Phantom Menace 32 BBY Episode I: The Phantom MenaceEpisode I: The Phantom Menace (manga) by Kia AsamiyaEpisode I: The Phantom Menace AdventuresPodracing Tales by Ryder Windham (online comic)Outlander by Tim Truman (Star Wars: Republic #7–12)Deal with a Demon by John Ostrander (published in Tales #3)Nomad by Rob Williams (published in Tales #21-24)Emissaries to Malastare by Tim Truman (Star Wars: Republic #13–18)Jango Fett: Open Seasons by Haden Blackman The Calm Before the Storm 31 BBY Twilight by John Ostrander (Star Wars: Republic #19–22)Infinity's End by Pat Mills (Star Wars: Republic #23–26)Starcrash by Doug Petrie (Star Wars: Republic #27) 30 BBY The Stark Hyperspace War by John Ostrander (Star Wars: Republic #36–39)Bad Business by John Ostrander (published in Tales #8)The Hunt for Aurra Sing by Tim Truman (Star Wars: Republic #28–31)Heart of Fire by John Ostrander (published in Dark Horse Extra #35-37)Darkness by John Ostrander (Star Wars: Republic #32–35)The Devaronian Version by John Ostrander (Star Wars: Republic #40–41) 28 BBY Rite of Passage by John Ostrander (Star Wars: Republic #42–45)Jedi Quest by Ryder Windham 27 BBY Jango Fett by Ron MarzZam Wesell by Ron MarzAurra Sing by Timothy Truman (published in The Bounty Hunters)The Sith in Shadow by Bob Harris (published in Tales #13) 25 BBY Poison Moon by Michael Carriglitto (published in Dark Horse Extra #44-47) 24 BBY A Jedi's Weapon by Henry Gilroy (published in Tales #12)Starfighter: Crossbones by Haden BlackmanPuzzle Peace by Scott Beatty (published in Tales #13)Honor and Duty by John Ostrander (Star Wars: Republic #46–48) 23 BBY Way of the Warrior by Peter Alilunas (published in Tales #18)Full of Surprises by Jason Hall (published in Hasbro/Toys"R"Us Exclusive) Most Precious Weapon by Jason Hall (published in Hasbro/Toys"R"Us Exclusive)Practice Makes Perfect by Jason Hall (published in Hasbro/Toys"R"Us Exclusive)Machines of War by Jason Hall (published in Hasbro/Toys"R"Us Exclusive) Attack of the Clones/The Clone Wars 22 BBY Episode II: Attack of the Clones by Henry GilroyClone Wars Volume 1: The Defense of Kamino by John Ostrander, Jan Duursema, Haden Blackman and Scott Allie (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) Sacrifice by John Ostrander (Republic #49)The Battle of Kamino by John Ostrander, Haden Blackman and Scott Allie (Republic #50)Jedi: Mace Windu by John OstranderClone Wars Volume 2: Victories and Sacrifices by Haden Blackman, John Ostrander, Tomas Giorello and Jan Duursema (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) The New Face of War by Haden Blackman (Republic #51–52)Blast Radius by Haden Blackman (Republic #53)Jedi: Shaak Ti by John OstranderNobody's Perfect by Peter Bagge (published in Tales #20)The Lesson by Adam Gallardo (published in Tales #14)Tides of Terror by Milton Freewater Jr. (published in Tales #14)Clone Wars Adventures Volume 1 Blind Force by Haden BlackmanHeavy Metal Jedi by Haden BlackmanFierce Currents by Haden BlackmanClone Wars Adventures Volume 2 Skywalkers by Haden BlackmanHide in Plain Sight by Welles HartleyRun Mace Run by Matthew and Shawn FillbachClone Wars Adventures Volume 3 Rogues Gallery by Haden BlackmanThe Package by Matthew and Shawn FillbachStranger in Town by Matthew and Shawn FillbachOne Battle by Bytim MucciClone Wars Adventures Volume 4 Another Fine Mess by Matthew and Shawn FillbachThe Brink by Justin LambrosOrders by Ryan KaufmanDescent by Haden BlackmanClone Wars Adventures Volume 7Clone Wars Adventures Volume 8Clone Wars Adventures Volume 9 Appetite for Adventure by Matthew and Shawn FillbachSalvaged by Matthew and Shawn FillbachLife Below by Matthew and Shawn FillbachNo Way Out by Matthew and Shawn FillbachClone Wars Adventures Volume 10 Graduation Day by Chris AvelloneThunder Road by Matthew and Shawn FillbachChain of Command by Jason HallWaiting by Matthew and Shawn FillbachDark Journey by Jason Hall (published in Tales #17) 21.5 BBY Clone Wars Volume 4: Light and Dark by John Ostrander, Jan Duursema and Dan Parsons (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) Double Blind by John Ostrander (Republic #54)Jedi: Aayla Secura by John OstranderJedi: Dooku by John OstranderStriking from the Shadows by John Ostrander (Republic #63) 21 BBY Honor Bound by Ian Edginton (published in Tales #22)Rather Darkness Visible by Jeremy Barlow (published in Tales #19)Clone Wars Volume 3: Last Stand on Jabiim by Haden Blackman, Brian Ching, Victor Llamas (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) The Battle of Jabiim by Haden Blackman (Republic #55–58)Enemy Lines by Haden Blackman (Republic #59)Clone Wars Volume 5: The Best Blades by John Ostrander, Haden Blackman, Jeremy Barlow, and Tomas Giorello (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) Hate and Fear by Haden Blackman (Republic #60)Dead Ends by John Ostrander (Republic #61)No Man's Land by John Ostrander (Republic #62)Bloodlines by John Ostrander (Republic #64)Jedi: Yoda by Jeremy BarlowClone Wars Volume 6: On The Fields of Battle by John Ostrander, Jan Duursema and Dan Parsons (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) Show of Force by John Ostrander (Republic #65-66)Forever Young by John Ostrander (Republic #67)Armor by John Ostrander (Republic #68)The Dreadnaughts of Rendili by John Ostrander (Republic #69–71)Slaves of the Republic by Henry Gilroy (The Clone Wars #1–6)In the Service of the Republic by Henry Gilroy & Steven Melching (The Clone Wars #7–9)Hero of the Confederacy by Henry Gilroy & Steven Melching (The Clone Wars #10–12)The Clone Wars - Online-Comic #1–22The Clone Wars: Gauntlet of Death by Henry Gilroy (2009 Free Comic Book Day)The Clone Wars (TV show tie-in novellas) #1-10Star Wars - Blood Ties : A Tale of Jango & Boba Fett by Tom Taylor & Chris Scalf 20 BBY General Grievous by Chuck DixonRoutine Valor by Randy Stradley (2006 Free Comic Book Day)Star Wars: Darth Maul—Death Sentence by Tom Taylor 19.5 BBY Clone Wars Volume 7: When They Were Brothers by Haden Blackman and Brian Ching (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) Obsession by Haden BlackmanUnnamed (2005 Free Comic Book Day)Clone Wars Volume 8: Last Siege, The Final Truth by John Ostrander, Jan Duursema and Dan Parsons (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) Trackdown by John Ostrander (Republic #72–73)Siege of Saleucami by John Ostrander (Republic #74–77)Brothers in Arms by Miles Lane (2005 Free Comic Book Day comic)Clone Wars Adventures Volume 5 What Goes Up… by Matthew and Shawn FillbachBailed Out by Justin LambrosHeroes on Both Side by Chris AvelloneOrder of Outcasts by Matt Jacobs (published in Clone Wars Adventures Volume 5)Clone Wars Adventures Volume 6 Means and Ends by Haden BlackmanThe Drop by Mike KennedyTo The Vanishing Point by Matthew and Shawn FillbachIt Takes a Thief by Matthew and Shawn FillbachEvasive Action: Reversal of Fortune by Paul Ens Revenge of the Sith 19 BBY Episode III: Revenge of the Sith by Miles LaneLoyalties by John Ostrander (Star Wars: Republic #78)Clone Wars Volume 9: Endgame by John Ostrander, Jan Duursema and Brad Anderson (Published by Titan Books Ltd.) Into the Unknown (Star Wars: Republic #79–80)The Hidden Enemy by John Ostrander (Republic #81–83)Purge by John OstranderPurge - Seconds to Die by John OstranderPurge - The Hidden Blade by W. Haden BlackmanPurge - The Tyrant's Fist by Alexander FreedEvasive Action: Recruitment by Paul EnsEvasive Action: Prey by Paul EnsThe Path to Nowhere by Mick Harrison (Dark Times #1–5)Parallels by Mick Harrison (Dark Times #6–10)Vector by Mick Harrison (Dark Times #11–12)Blue Harvest by Mick Harrison (Dark Times #0,13–17)Darth Vader and the Lost Command by Hayden BlackmanOut of the Wilderness by Mick Harrison (Dark Times #18-22)Darth Vader and the Ghost Prison by Hayden BlackmanDarth Maul: Death Sentence by Tom TaylorDark Times: Fire Carrier by Mick HarrisonDark Times: A Spark Remains by Mick Harrison 18 BBY The Duty by Christian Read (published in Tales #12) 18-5 BBY The Value of Proper Intelligence to Any Successful Military Campaign is Not to be Underestimated by Ken Lizzi (published in Tales #19)Darth Vader and the Ninth Assassin by Tim Siedell 17 BBY Darth Vader and the Cry of Shadows by Tim Siedell 15 BBY Star Wars: Droids #1-5 by David Manak (Marvel Comics) 12 BBY Ghost by Jan Duursema (published in Tales #11)Fortune, Fate, and the Natural History of the Sarlacc by Mark Schultz (published in Tales #6) 11 BBY Nerf Herder by Phil Amara (published in Tales #7) 10 BBY Star Wars Blood Ties: Boba Fett is Dead by Tom Taylor 8 BBY Luke Skywalker: Detective by Rick Geary (published in Tales #20) 7 BBY Number Two in the Galaxy by Henry Gilroy (published in Tales #18)Payback by Andy Diggle (published in Tales #18)Being Boba Fett by Jason Hall (published in Tales #18) 6 BBY The Princess Leia Diaries (pages 1–7) by Jason Hall (published in Tales #11)Outbid but Never Outgunned by Beau Smith (published in Tales #7) The Dark Times 5 BBY Luke Skywalker: Walkabout by Phill Norwood (published in Dark Horse Presents Annual 1999)Routine by Tony Isabella (published in Tales #2)Young Lando Calrissian by Gilbert Hernandez (published in Tales #20)The Princess Leia Diaries (pages 8–9) by Jason Hall (published in Tales #11)Jabba the Hutt: The Art of the Deal by Jim Woodring 4 BBY Falling Star by Jim Beard (published in Tales #15)Star Wars: Ewoks #1-9 by David Manak 3 BBY The Flight of the Falcon by Steve Parkhouse (published in Devilworlds #1)In the Beginning by Garth Ennis (published in Tales #11)Star Wars: Droids: The Kalarba Adventures by Dan Thorsland (Dark Horse series V1 #1-6)Star Wars: Droids Special #1 by Dan ThorslandStar Wars: Droids: Rebellion by Ryder Windham (Dark Horse series V2 #1-4)Star Wars: Droids: The Season of Revolt by Jan Strnad (Dark Horse series V2 #5-8)Star Wars: Droids: The Protocol Offensive by Ryder WindhamStar Wars: Ewoks #10-14 by David ManakIron Eclipse by John Ostrander (Agent of the Empire #1-5)Hard Targets by John Ostrander (Agent of the Empire #6-10) 2 BBY Han Solo at Stars' End by Archie Goodwin (reprints strips by Alfredo Alcala)Crumb for Hire by Ryder Windham (published in A Decade of Dark Horse #2)Boba Fett: Salvage by John Wagner (published in Boba Fett ½)Boba Fett: Enemy of the Empire by John WagnerFirst Impressions by Nathan Walker (published in Tales #15)The Force Unleashed by Haden Blackman 1 BBY The Force Unleashed II by Haden BlackmanBlood Ties: Boba Fett is Dead by Tom TaylorDarklighter by Paul Chadwick (Empire #8–9, 12, 15)The Princess Leia Diaries (pages 10–12) by Jason Hall (published in Tales #11)Darth Vader: Extinction by Ron Marz (published in Tales #1-2)The Hovel on Terk Street by Tom Fassbender and Jom Pascoe (published in Tales #6)Rookies Rendezvous by Pablo HidalgoRookies Rendezvous: No Turning Back by Pablo HidalgoWay of the Wookiee by Archie Goodwin (published in Marvel Illustrated Books Star Wars 1)Princess… Warrior by Randy Stradley (Empire #5–6)Betrayal by Scott Allie (Empire #1–4)Dark Forces: Soldier for the Empire by William C. DietzThe Short, Happy Life of Roons Sewell by Paul Chadwick (Empire #10–11)Star Wars Underworld - The Yavin Vassilika by Mike Kennedy & Carlos MegliaStar Wars Adventures: Han Solo and the Hollow Moon of Khorya The Rebellion Era (0–5 ABY) A New Hope 0 ABY Episode IV: A New Hope by Bruce JonesEpisode IV: A New Hope (manga) by Hisao TamakiX-wing Rogue Squadron #1/2 by Michael A. Stackpole (Special Wizard Magazine comic)Droids #6-8 by David Manak (Marvel Comics)Trooper by Garth Ennis (published in Tales #10)What Sin Loyalty? by Jeremy Barlow (Empire #13)Day After the Death Star by Archie GoodwinSacrifice by John Wagner (Empire #7)The Savage Heart by Paul Alden (Empire #14)To the Last Man by Welles Hartley (Empire #16-18)Star Wars by Brian Wood, Carlos D’Anda Volume 1: In The Shadow Of Yavin (#1-6)Volume 2: From The Ruins Of Alderaan (#7-12)Volume 3: Rebel Girl (#15-18)Volume 4: A Shattered Hope (#13-14, #19-20)Classic Star Wars: A Long Time Ago... Volume 1: Doomworld by Archie Goodwin (collects Marvel Star Wars #1-20) Six Against the GalaxyDeath StarIn Battle with Darth VaderLo, The Moons of YavinIs This the Final Chapter?New Planets, New PerilsEight for Aduba-3Showdown on a Wasteland WorldBehemoth from the World BelowStar SearchDoomworldDay of the Dragon LordsThe Sound of ArmageddonStar DuelThe HunterCrucibleThe Empire StrikesThe Ultimate GambleDeathgameClassic Star Wars: A Long Time Ago... Volume 2: Dark Encounters by Archie Goodwin (collects Marvel Star Wars #21-38 & Annual #1) Shadow of a Dark LordTo the Last GladiatorFlight Into FurySilent DriftingSiege at YavinDoom MissionReturn of the HunterWhat Ever Happened to Jabba the Hut?Dark EncounterA Princess AloneReturn to TatooineThe Jawa ExpressSaber ClashThunder in the StarsDark Lord's GambitRed Queen RisingIn Mortal CombatRiders in the VoidThe Long HuntClassic Star Wars Volume 1: Deadly Pursuit by Archie Goodwin The Bounty Hunter of Ord MantellDarth Vader StrikesThe Serpent MastersDeadly ReunionTraitor's GambitClassic Star Wars Volume 2: The Rebel Storm by Archie Goodwin The Night BeastThe Return of Ben KenobiThe Power GemThe Ice WorldRevenge of the JediDoom Mission!Classic Star Wars Volume 3: Escape to Hoth by Archie Goodwin Race For SurvivalThe Paradise DetourA New BeginningShowdown!Classic Star Wars, Volume 4: The Early Adventures by Russ Manning Gambler's WorldTatooine Sojourn (written by Steve Gerber)Princess Leia, Imperial Servant (written by Archie Goodwin as R.S. Helm)The Second Kessel Run (written by Archie Goodwin as R.S. Helm)Bring Me the ChildrenAs Long as We Live ForeverThe Frozen World of OtaWalking The Path That's Given by Shane McCarthy (published in Tales #21)Vader's Quest by Darko MacanDeath Star Pirates by Henry Gilroy (published in Tales #8)Target: Vader by Ron Marz (Empire #19)A Little Piece of Home by Ron Marz (Empire #20–21)Alone Together by Welles Hartley (Empire #22)The Bravery of Being Out of Range by Jeremy Barlow (Empire #23)Idiot's Array by Ron Marz (Empire #24–25)"General" Skywalker by Ron Marz (Empire #26–27)Wreckage by Ron Marz (Empire #28)In the Shadows of Their Fathers by Thomas Andrews (Empire #29–30, 32–34)The Price of Power by Scott Allie (Empire #31)A Model Officer by John Jackson Miller (Empire #35)The Wrong Side of the War by Welles Hartley (Empire #36–40)Boba Fett: Overkill by Thomas AndrewsCrossroads (Rebellion #0)My Brother, My Enemy by Rob Williams (Rebellion #1–5)The Ahakista Gambit (Rebellion #6-10)Small Victories (Rebellion #11-14)Rebellion: Vector (Rebellion #15-16)Star Wars Adventures: Chewbacca and The Slavers of the Shadowlands by Chris CerasiThe Kingdom of Ice / War on IceWorld of Fire (World of Fire #1-3) 1 ABY Lady Luck by Rich Handley and Darko Macan (published in Tales #3)Dark Lord's Conscience by Alan Moore (published in Devilworlds #1)Dark Knight's Devilry by Steve Moore (published in Devilworlds #1)Rust Never Sleeps by Alan Moore (published in Devilworlds #2)The Pandora Effect by Alan Moore (published in Devilworlds #2)Tilotny Throws a Shape by Alan Moore (published in Devilworlds #2)Planet of the Dead by Steve Niles (published in Tales #17)Planet of Kadril comic strip by Archie Goodwin (published in Los Angeles Times Syndicate) 2 ABY Lucky Stars by Brian Augustyn (published in Tales #15)River of Chaos by Louise SimensonSplinter of the Mind's Eye by Alan Dean FosterGhosts of Hoth by Rob Williams (published in Tales #17)A Valentine's Story: Breaking the Ice by Judd Winick and Paul ChadwickThe Hidden by Sean Konot and Scott Morse (published in Tales #6)Star Wars Adventures: Princess Leia and the Royal Ransom by Jeremy Barlow and Carlo SorianoStar Wars Adventures: Boba Fett and the Ship of Fear by Jeremy Barlow and Carlo Soriano The Empire Strikes Back 3 ABY Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (manga) by Toshiki KudoClassic Star Wars: A Long Time Ago... Volume 3: Resurrection of Evil (collects Marvel's Star Wars #39-53) Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back The Empire Strikes Back: Beginning by Archie GoodwinThe Empire Strikes Back: Battleground: Hoth by Archie GoodwinThe Empire Strikes Back: Imperial Pursuit by Archie GoodwinThe Empire Strikes Back: To Be a Jedi by Archie GoodwinThe Empire Strikes Back: Betrayal at Bespin by Archie GoodwinThe Empire Strikes Back: Duel a Dark Lord by Archie GoodwinDeath Probe by Archie GoodwinThe Dreams of Cody Sunn-Childe by J. M. DeMatteisDroid World by Archie GoodwinThe Third Law by Larry HamaThe Last Jedi by Mike W. BarrThe Crimson Forever by Archie GoodwinResurrection of Evil by David MichelinieTo Take The Tarkin by David MichelinieThe Last Gift From Alderaan by Chris ClaremontClassic Star Wars: A Long Time Ago... Volume 4: Screams in the Void (collects Marvel's Star Wars #54-67 & Annual #2)Classic Star Wars: A Long Time Ago... Volume 5: Fool's Bounty (collects Marvel's Star Wars #68-81 & Annual #3)Moment of Doubt by Lovern Kindzierski (published in Tales #4)Slippery Slope by Scott Lobdell (published in Tales #15)Thank the Maker by Ryder Windham (published in Tales #6)Hunger Pains by Jim Campbell (published in Tales #20)Blind Fury by Alan Moore (published in Devilworlds #1)Tales from Mos Eisley by Bruce JonesShadow Stalker by Ryder WindhamShadows of the Empire by John WagnerBattle of the Bounty Hunters pop-up comic by Ryder WindhamScoundrel's Wages by Mark Schultz (published in The Bounty Hunters)Star Wars Adventures: Luke Skywalker and the Treasure of the Dragonsnakes by Tom TaylorStar Wars Adventures: The Will of Darth Vader by Tom Taylor Return of the Jedi 4 ABY Episode VI: Return of the Jedi by Archie GoodwinEpisode VI: Return of the Jedi (manga) by Shin-ichi HiromotoMara Jade: By the Emperor's Hand by Timothy Zahn and Michael A. StackpoleThe Jabba Tape by John WagnerSand Blasted by Killian Pluckett (published in Tales #4)A Day in the Life by Brett Matthews (published in Tales #12)Free Memory by Brett Matthews (published in Tales #10)Lucky by Rob Williams (published in Tales #23)Do or Do Not by Jay Laird (published in Tales #15)X-Wing: Rogue Leader by Haden BlackmanClassic Star Wars: A Long Time Ago... Volume 6: Wookiee World (collects Marvel's Star Wars #82-95)Classic Star Wars: A Long Time Ago... Volume 7: Far, Far Away (collects Marvel's Star Wars #96-107)Classic Star Wars: The Vandelhelm Mission by Archie Goodwin and Al Williamson (reprints Marvel's Star Wars #98) New Galactic Republic Era (5–25 ABY) 5 ABY Mara Jade: A Night on the Town by Timothy Zahn (published in Tales #1)Marooned by Lucas Marangon (published in Tales #22)Three Against the Galaxy by Rich Hedden (published in Tales #3)Boba Fett: Agent of Doom by John OstranderX-wing Rogue Squadron Special (Kellogg's Apple Jacks Promotion) by Ryder Windham (also published in the Battleground Tatooine TPB)The Rebel Opposition by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #1–4)The Phantom Affair by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #5–8)Battleground: Tatooine by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #9–12)The Warrior Princess by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #13–16)Requiem for a Rogue by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #17–20)In the Empire's Service by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #21–24)Shadows of the Empire: Evolution by Steve PerryThe Making of Baron Fel by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #25)Family Ties by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #26–27)Masquerade by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #28–31)Mandatory Retirement by Michael A. Stackpole (X-wing Rogue Squadron #32–35)Phantom Menaces by Joe Casey (published in Tales #17) 6 ABY Collapsing New Empires by Jim Pascoe (published in Tales #19)Dark Forces: Rebel Agent by William C. DietzDark Forces: Jedi Knight by William C. DietzBoba Fett: Twin Engines of Destruction by Andy Mangels (published in The Bounty Hunters) 7 ABY Problem Solvers by Chris Eliopoulos (published in Tales #20) 8 ABY Lando's Commandos: On Eagle's Wings by Carlos Meglia (published in Tales #5) 9 ABY The Thrawn Trilogy Heir to the Empire by Timothy Zahn and Mike BaronDark Force Rising by Timothy Zahn and Mike BaronThe Last Command by Timothy Zahn and Mike Baron 10 ABY Dark Empire I by Tom VeitchDark Empire II by Tom Veitch 11 ABY Boba Fett: Death, Lies, & Treachery by John WagnerEmpire's End by Tom VeitchCrimson Empire by Mike Richardson and Randy StradleyKenix Kil by Randy Stradley (published in The Bounty Hunters)Crimson Empire II: Council of Blood by Mike Richardson and Randy StradleyHard Currency by Randy Stradley (published in Dark Horse Extra #21-24)The Other by Jason Hall (published in Tales #16)Tall Tales by Scott Allie (published in Tales #11) 13 ABY The Third Time Pays for All by Randy Stradley (published in Dark Horse Presents #1)Crimson Empire III: Empire Lost by Mike Richardson and Randy StradleyJedi Academy: Leviathan by Kevin J. Anderson 15 ABY The Secret Tales of Luke's Hand by Henry Gilroy (published in Tales #8) 19 ABY Apocalypse Endor by Christian Read (published in Tales #14) 20 ABY Union by Michael A. Stackpole The New Jedi Order Era (25–37 ABY) 25 ABY Chewbacca by Darko MacanRefugees by Tom Taylor (Invasion #0 & 1-5)Rescues by Tom Taylor (Invasion #6-11)Revelations by Tom Taylor (Invasion #12-16)Revenants by Haden Blackman (published in Tales #18) 28 ABY Equals and Opposites by Nathan P. Butler (published in Tales #21) Legacy Era (40 ABY onwards) 40 ABY The Lost Lightsaber by Andrew Robinson & Jim Royal (published in Tales #19) 130 ABY Star Wars Legacy: Broken by John Ostrander (Legacy #1–3, 5–7)Star Wars Legacy: Noob by John Ostrander (Legacy #4)Star Wars Legacy: Allies by John Ostrander (Legacy #8)Star Wars Legacy: Trust Issues by John Ostrander (Legacy #9-10)Star Wars Legacy: The Ghosts of Ossus by John Ostrander (Legacy #11-12)Star Wars Legacy: Ready To Die by John Ostrander (Legacy #13)Star Wars Legacy: Claws of the Dragon by John Ostrander (Legacy #14–19)Star Wars Legacy: Indomitable by John Ostrander (Legacy #20–21)Star Wars Legacy: The Wrath of the Dragon by John Ostrander (Legacy #22)Star Wars Legacy: Loyalties by John Ostrander (Legacy #23-24)Star Wars Legacy: The Hidden Temple by John Ostrander (Legacy #25-26)Star Wars Legacy: Into the Core by John Ostrander (Legacy #27)Star Wars Legacy: Vector by John Ostrander (Legacy #28-31)Star Wars Legacy: Fight Another Day by John Ostrander (Legacy #32-33)Star Wars Legacy: Storms by John Ostrander (Legacy #34-35)Star Wars Legacy: Renegade by John Ostrander (Legacy #36)Star Wars Legacy: Tatooine by John Ostrander (Legacy #37-40)Star Wars Legacy: Rogue's End by John Ostrander (Legacy #41)Star Wars Legacy: Divided Loyalties by John Ostrander (Legacy #42)Star Wars Legacy: Monster by John Ostrander (Legacy #43-46)Star Wars Legacy: The Fate of Dac by John Ostrander (Legacy #47)Star Wars Legacy: Extremes by John Ostrander (Legacy #48-50) 138 ABY Star Wars Legacy: War by John Ostrander (#1-6)Star Wars Legacy: Prisoner of the Floating World by Corinna Bechko and Gabriel Hardman (#1-5)Star Wars Legacy: Outcasts of the Broken Ring by Corinna Bechko and Gabriel Hardman (#6-10)Star Wars Legacy: Wanted, Ania Solo (#11-15)Star Wars Legacy: Empire Of One (#16-18, 0½) Long after Yavin Storyteller by Jason Hall (published in Tales #19) Infinities Era (Not within timeline) Infinities A New HopeThe Empire Strikes BackReturn of the JediStar Wars Tales (N-canon stories) Skippy the Jedi Droid by Peter David (published in Tales #1)Stop that Jawa! by Dave Cooper (published in Tales #2)A Death Star is Born by Kevin Rubio (published in Tales #4)Spare Parts by Mark Evanier (published in Tales #4)What They Called Me by Craig Thompson (published in Tales #5)Hoth by Tony Millionaire (published in Tales #5)A Hot Time in the Cold Town Tonite by Ian Edginton (published in Tales #6)Junkheap Hero by Mark Evanierspli (published in Tales #6)Jedi Chef by Randy Stradley (published in Tales #7)Force Fiction by Kevin Rubio (published in Tales #7)Captain Threepio by Ryan Kinnaird (published in Tales #8)The One that Got Away by Andi Watson (published in Tales #8)Resurrection by Ron Marz (published in Tales #9)Lil' Maul in: Hate Leads to Lollipops by Dave McCaig (published in Tales #9)The Rebel Four by Jay Stephens (published in Tales #9)Skreej by Mike Kennedy (published in Tales #10)A Wookiee Scorned by Jason Hall (published in Tales #10)Prey by Kia Asamiya (published in Tales #11)The Revenge of Tag and Bink by Kevin Rubio (published in Tales #12)The Emperor's Court by Jason Hall (published in Tales #14)Smuggler's Blues by Matthew and Shawn Fillbach (published in Tales #14)The Sandstorm by Jason Hall (published in Tales #15)Best Birthday Ever by Tod Parkhill (published in Tales #16)The Long, Bad Day by Mike Denning (published in Tales #16)Kessel Run by Gilbert Austin (published in Tales #16)Lunch Break by Jonathan Adams (published in Tales #16)The Rebel Club by Scott Kurtz (published in Tales #19)Into the Great Unknown by Haden Blackman (published in Tales #19)Who's your Daddy by Jason (published in Tales #20)Fred Jawa by Jason (published in Tales #20)Failing Up with Jar Jar Binks by Peter Bagge (published in Tales #20)Melvin Fett by James Kochalka (published in Tales #20)Fett Club by Kevin Rubio (published in Tales #24)Tag and Bink: Revenge of the Clone Menace by Kevin RubioTag and Bink Are Dead 1 by Kevin RubioTag and Bink Are Dead 2 by Kevin RubioThe Return of Tag and Bink: Special Edition by Kevin RubioSergio Stomps Star Wars by Sergio AragonesStar Wars: VisionariesThe Star Wars, adapted from George Lucas' screenplay draft for A New Hope. References 1. . Missing or empty |title= (help); Dark Horse, publisher of most SW Comics: timeline Writers This is a list of Star Wars comic book writers. It covers those who have written for series, one-shots, film adaptations, and comics from Star Wars Tales. Jonathan AdamsPaul AldenPeter AlilunasScott AlliePhil AmaraKevin J. AndersonThomas AndrewsKia AsamiyaBrian AugustynChris AvellonePeter BaggeJeremy BarlowMike BaronJim BeardScott BeattyHaden BlackmanNathan P. ButlerJoe CaseyC.B. CebulskiPaul ChadwickChris ClaremontDave CooperBrian DaleyPeter DavidMike DenningWilliam C. DietzAndy DiggleChuck DixonJan DuursemaIan EdgintonChris EliopoulosGarth EnnisPaul EnsMark EvanierspliTom FassbenderMatthew FillbachShawn FillbachAlan Dean FosterAlexander FreedMilton Freewater Jr.Warren J. FuAdam GallardoRick GearyHenry Gilroy Archie GoodwinJason HallRich HandleyBob HarrisMick HarrisonWelles HartleyRich HeddenGilbert HernandezPablo HidalgoShin-ichi HiromotoTony IsabellaMatt JacobsBruce JonesRyan KaufmanMike KennedyRyan KinnairdSean KonotJim KruegerToshiki KudoScott KurtzJay LairdJustin LambrosMiles LanePaul LeeSang Jun LeeKen LizziDarko MacanDavid ManakAndy MangelsRuss ManningLucas MarangonRon MarzBrett MatthewsAaron McBrideShane McCarthyCarlos MegliaSteven MelchingJohn Jackson MillerPat MillsAlan MooreSteve MooreScott MorseDean MotterBytim Mucci Can you remember the first comic book that ever landed in your hands? More than a decade ago I first met one of my comic book creator heroes, Howard Chaykin. Chaykin created the very first Star Wars movie poster, a stylized, action-filled cover in his unique style: Chaykin was visiting town at a local Con and luckily for me most of the visitors at the show were in line for the newest young comic artist, and didn’t realize all Mr. Chaykin had done in his long career in comics and television, so I got plenty of time to chat with him, and have him autograph my first comic book: Star Wars, Issue #8, featuring a story called “Eight for Aduba-3,” influenced by The Magnificent Seven/Seven Samurai story. I’ve bragged up Chaykin before here at borg.com. He’s one of the most interesting guys in the comics business. “Eight for Aduba-3” came out when Marvel Comics first had the license to create the Star Wars movie adaptation, drawn by Chaykin and written by Chaykin and the great Roy Thomas, after a quick look at materials from the film and conversation with George Lucas. They were tapped to take the characters from the new phenomenon in a new direction following the events in Episode IV: A New Hope. “Eight for Aduba-3” included more than one tough recruited mercenary, much like its source material, but the big standout was Jaxxon, a giant, angry green rabbit-man. The Marvel Comics series ran to 107 issues, three annuals, and a four-issue adaptation of Return of the Jedi. Then Dark Horse Comics later took over and gave us 20 years of great stories. As we reported here back in July during Comic-Con, Marvel Comics announced that January 2015 will see the first of Marvel taking over the Star Wars comic book line from Dark Horse with three initial series. Fellow Elite Comics regular Jason Aaron will write and John Cassaday will serve as artist on the new series taking place just after A New Hope, where the original 1978 Marvel Comics line began and the current main Dark Horse title takes place. Today Marvel Comics made public a variant cover for Aaron and Cassaday’s new series–Star Wars, Issue #1, featuring none other than Jaxxon himself. Wookieepedia is also available in English. Check it out! SW Wiki On the Wiki Wiki Activity Random article Videos Photos Status Articles Navigation Community Contact Contribute Watchlist Random article Recent changes Roy Thomas (born November 22, 1940) is a comic book writer and editor. He wrote the comic adaptation for A New Hope, and was one of the first to contribute to the Expanded Universe as he wrote the subsequent stories in Marvel Star Wars comic series, but only stayed on for a total run of ten issues. Thomas began in the comics industry in 1965 when he started working as an assistant editor at DC Comics. But he didn't last long at DC as just eight days later he accepted a job at Marvel Comics as writer and editor. In 1972 Thomas succeeded Stan Lee as editor-in-chief of Marvel while he continued to write many of Marvel's top titles at the time. He was instrumental in bringing the Star Wars franchise to Marvel, which in turn almost single-handedly saved Marvel from bankruptcy. He currently lives in South Carolina, editing the comic book fanzine Alter Ego. Thomas had the distinction of creating Jaxxon alongside Howard Chaykin, the only character to appear in the Marvel series to seemingly be put to pasture by Lucasfilm.[source?] Roy William Thomas, Jr.[1] (born November 22, 1940)[2] is an American comic book writer and editor, who was Stan Lee's first successor as editor-in-chief of Marvel Comics. He is possibly best known for introducing the pulp magazine hero Conan the Barbarian to American comics, with a series that added to the storyline of Robert E. Howard's character and helped launch a sword and sorcery trend in comics. Thomas is also known for his championing of Golden Age comic-book heroes – particularly the 1940s superhero team the Justice Society of America – and for lengthy writing stints on Marvel's X-Men and Avengers, and DC Comics' All-Star Squadron, among other titles. Thomas was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2011. Contents 1 Early life2 Career 2.1 Marvel Comics 2.1.1 Editor-in-chief2.2 DC Comics2.3 Later career3 Awards4 References5 External links Early life Thomas was born in Jackson, Missouri, United States.[3] As a child, he was a devoted comic book fan, and in grade school he wrote and drew his own comics for distribution to friends and family. The first of these was All-Giant Comics, which he recalls as having featured such characters as Elephant Giant.[3][4] He graduated from Southeast Missouri State University in 1961 with a BS in Education,[1] having majored in history and social science. Thomas became an early and active member of Silver Age comic book fandom when it organized in the early 1960s – primarily around Jerry Bails, whose enthusiasm for the rebirth of superhero comics during that period led Bails to found the fanzine Alter Ego, an early focal point of fandom. Thomas, then a high school English teacher, took over as editor in 1964 when Bails moved on to other pursuits. Letters from him appeared regularly in the letters pages of both DC and Marvel Comics, including The Flash #116 (Nov. 1960), Fantastic Four #5 (July 1962), Fantastic Four #15 (June 1963), and Fantastic Four #22 (Jan. 1964). Career Marvel Comics In 1965, Thomas moved to New York City to take a job at DC Comics as assistant to Mort Weisinger, then the editor of the Superman titles. Thomas said he had just accepted a fellowship to study foreign relations at George Washington University when he received a letter from Weisinger, "with whom I had exchanged one or two letters, tops", asking Thomas to become "his assistant editor on a several-week trial basis."[5] Thomas had already written a Jimmy Olsen script "a few months before, while still living and teaching in the St. Louis area," he said in 2005. "I worked at DC for eight days in late June and very early July of 1965"[6] before accepting a job at Marvel Comics. The Marvel "Bullpen Bulletins" in Fantastic Four #61 (April 1967) describes Thomas "admitting that he gave up a scholarship to George Washington University just to write for Marvel!" This came after his chafing under the notoriously difficult Weisinger, to a point, Thomas said in 1981, that he would go "home to my dingy little room at, coincidentally, the George Washington Hotel in Manhattan, during that second week, and actually feeling tears well into my eyes, at the ripe old age of 24."[5] Familiar with editor and chief writer Stan Lee's Marvel work, and feeling them "the most vital comics around,[5] Thomas "just sat down one night at the hotel and – I wrote him a letter! Not applying for a job or anything so mundane as that – I just said that I admired his work, and would like to buy him a drink some time. I figured he just might remember me from Alter Ego."[5] Lee did, and phoned Thomas to offer him a Marvel writing test. I was hired after taking [the] ' writer's test', and my first official job title at Marvel was 'staff writer'. I wasn't hired as an editor or assistant editor. I was supposed to come in 40 hours a week and write scripts on staff. ... I sat at this corrugated metal desk with a typewriter in a small office with production manager Sol Brodsky and corresponding secretary Flo Steinberg. Everybody who came up to Marvel wound up there, and the phone was constantly ringing, with conversations going on all around me. ... Almost at once, even though Stan proofed all the finished stories, he and Sol started having me check the corrections before they went out, and that would break up my concentration still further. ... [and] they kept asking me to do this or that, or questions like in which issue something happened, or Stan would come in to check something, because I knew a lot about Marvel continuity up to that time. ... It quickly became apparent to them, too, that the staff writer thing wasn't working, and Stan segued me over to being an editorial assistant, which immediately worked out better for all concerned.[7] The writer's test, Thomas said in 1998, "was four Jack Kirby pages from Fantastic Four Annual #2 ... [Stan Lee] had Sol [Brodsky] or someone take out the dialogue. It was just black-and-white. Other people like Denny O'Neil and Gary Friedrich took it. But soon afterwards we stopped using it."[8] The day after taking the test, Thomas was at DC, proofreading a Supergirl story, when Steinberg called asking Thomas to meet with Lee during lunch, where Thomas agreed to work for Marvel.[9] He returned to DC to give "indefinite notice" to Weisinger, but Weisinger ordered him to leave immediately and "I was back at Marvel less than an hour after I first left, and had a Modeling with Millie assignment to do over the weekend. It was a Friday."[9] His employment was announced in the "Bullpen Bulletins" section of Fantastic Four #47 (Feb. 1966) under the heading "How About That! Department" ("Roy's a fan who's made it!"). To that point, editor-in-chief Lee had been the main writer of Marvel publications, with his brother, Larry Lieber, often picking up the slack scripting Lee-plotted stories. Thomas soon became the first new Marvel writer to sustain a presence, at a time when comics veterans such as Robert Bernstein, Ernie Hart, Leon Lazarus, and Don Rico, and fellow newcomers Steve Skeates (hired a couple of weeks earlier) and O'Neil (brought in at Thomas' recommendation a few months later) did not. His Marvel debut was the romance-comics story "Whom Can I Turn To?" in the Millie the Model spin-off Modeling with Millie #44 (Dec. 1965) – for which the credits and the logo were inadvertently left off due to a production glitch, resulting in this being left off most credit lists.[10][11] Thomas' first Marvel superhero scripting was "My Life for Yours", the "Iron Man" feature in Tales of Suspense #73 (Jan. 1966), working from a Lee plot as well as a plot assist from secretary Steinberg. Thomas estimates that Lee rewrote approximately half of that fledgling attempt. Thomas' earliest Marvel work also included the teen-romance title Patsy and Hedy #104–105 (Feb.-April 1966), and two "Doctor Strange" stories, plotted by Lee and Steve Ditko, in Strange Tales #143–144 (April–May 1966). Two previously written freelance stories for Charlton Comics also saw print: "The Second Trojan War" in Son of Vulcan #50 (Jan. 1966) and "The Eye of Horus" in Blue Beetle #54 (March 1966).[12] "When Stan saw the couple of Charlton stories I'd written earlier in more of a Gardner Fox style, he wasn't too impressed," Thomas recalled. "It's probably a good thing I already had my job at Marvel at that point! I think I was the right person in the right place at the right time, but there are other people who, had they been there, might have been just as right."[13] Thomas took on what would be his first long-term Marvel title, the World War II series Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos, starting with #29 (April 1966) and continuing through #41 (April 1967) and the series' 1966 annual, Sgt. Fury Special #2. He also began writing the mutant-superteam title [Uncanny] X-Men from #20–43 (May 1966 – April 1968), and, finally, took over The Avengers, starting with #35 (Dec. 1966), and continuing until 1972. That notable run was marked by a strong sense of continuity, and stories that ranged from the personal to the cosmic – the latter most prominently with the "Kree-Skrull War " in issues #89–97 (June 1971 – March 1972). Additional work included an occasional "Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D" and "Doctor Strange" story in Strange Tales. When that title became the solo comic Doctor Strange, he wrote the entire run of new stories, from #169–183 (June 1968 – Nov. 1969), mostly with the art team of penciler Gene Colan and inker Tom Palmer.[12] As Thomas self-evaluated in a 1981 interview, shortly after leaving Marvel for rival DC Comics, "One of the reasons Stan liked my writing ... was that after a few issues he felt he could trust me enough that he virtually never again read anything I wrote – well, at least not more than a page or two in a row, just to keep me honest."[14] Thomas eloped in July 1968 to marry his first wife, Jean Maxey,[15] returning to work a day late from a weekend comic-book convention in St. Louis, Missouri. Thomas said in 2000 that Brodsky, in the interim, had assigned Doctor Strange to the writer Archie Goodwin, newly ensconced at Marvel and writing Iron Man, but Thomas convinced Brodsky to return it to him. "I got very possessive about Doctor Strange," Thomas recalled. "It wasn't a huge seller, but [by the time it was canceled], we were selling in the low 40 percent range of more than 400,000 print run, so it was actually selling a couple hundred thousand copies [but] at the time you needed to sell even more."[16] He eventually did have a Caribbean honeymoon, where he scripted the wedding of Hank Pym and Janet Van Dyne in The Avengers #60 (Jan.1969).[17] Thomas, who had turned over X-Men to other writers, returned with issue #55 (April 1969) when the series was on the verge of cancellation.[18] While efforts to save it failed – the title ended its initial run with #66 – Thomas' collaboration with artist Neal Adams through #63 (Dec. 1969)[19] is regarded as a Silver Age creative highlight.[20] Thomas won the 1969 Alley Award that year for Best Writer, while Adams and inker Tom Palmer, netted 1969 Alley Awards for Best Pencil Artist and Best Inking Artist, respectively. The Avengers #57 (Oct. 1968), debut of the Silver Age Vision, created by Thomas as a homage to the Golden Age original. Cover art by John Buscema. Thomas and artist Barry Smith launched Conan the Barbarian in October 1970,[21] based on Robert E. Howard's 1930s pulp-fiction sword-and-sorcery character. Thomas, who stepped down from his editorship in August 1974, wrote hundreds of Conan stories in a host of Marvel comics and black-and-white magazines Savage Tales and The Savage Sword of Conan the Barbarian.[12] During that time, he and Smith also brought to comics Howard's little-known, sword-wielding woman-warrior Red Sonja, initially as a Conan supporting character. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "Conan the Barbarian was something of a gamble for Marvel. The series contained the usual elements of action and fantasy, to be sure, but it was set in a past that had no relation to the Marvel Universe, and it featured a hero who possessed no magical powers, little humor and comparatively few moral principles."[22] In 1971, with Stan Lee and Gerry Conway, Thomas created Man-Thing and wrote the first Man-Thing story in color comics, after Conway and Len Wein had introduced the character in the black-and-white comics magazine Savage Tales.[12] Later that year, Thomas wrote the "Kree-Skrull War " storyline in The Avengers which was drawn by Sal Buscema, Neal Adams, and John Buscema.[23][24][25] Thomas was the first person other than Stan Lee to receive a writer's credit for The Amazing Spider-Man,[26] and he and artist Ross Andru launched the Spider-Man spin-off title Marvel Team-Up in March 1972.[27] Thomas co-created many other characters with Marvel artists. Among them are Ultron (including the fictional metal adamantium),[28][29] Carol Danvers,[30] Morbius the Living Vampire,[26] Doc Samson, Valkyrie, Werewolf by Night,[31] and Killraven.[32] Thomas also co-created several characters based on already existing characters, including the Vision,[33] Yellowjacket,[34] the Black Knight,[35] and Adam Warlock.[36] Editor-in-chief The following year, when Lee became Marvel's publisher, Thomas succeeded him as editor-in-chief. Thomas also continued to script mainstream titles, including Marvel's flagship, The Fantastic Four[37] He launched such new titles as the unusual "non-team" series The Defenders,[38][39] as well as What If, a title that explored alternate histories. In addition, he indulged his love of Golden Age comic-book heroes in the World War II-set superhero series The Invaders.[12][40] Thomas also helped create such new characters as the supernatural Brother Voodoo, the demonic, motorcycle-driving Ghost Rider,[41] and the superpowered martial artist Iron Fist.[42] He was instrumental in engineering Marvel's comic-book adaptation of the movie Star Wars, without which, 1980s editor Jim Shooter believed, "[W]e would have gone out of business".[43] In 1975, Thomas wrote the first joint publishing venture between Marvel and DC Comics – a 72-page Wizard of Oz movie adaptation in an oversized "Treasury Edition" format with art by John Buscema.[12][44] He and Buscema crafted a comics adaptation of Tarzan for Marvel in June 1977.[45] DC Comics In 1981, after several years of freelancing for Marvel and a dispute with then editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, Thomas signed a three-year exclusivity writing/editing contract with DC. He marked his return to DC with a two-part Green Lantern story in Green Lantern #138–139 (March–April 1981), and briefly wrote Batman,[46][47] DC Comics Presents, and the Legion of Super-Heroes.[12] DC gave Thomas' work a promotional push by featuring several of his series in free, 16-page insert previews.[48][49][50][51] Thomas married his second wife Danette Couto in May 1981.[52] Danette legally changed her first name to Dann[53] and would become Roy's regular writing partner. Thomas credits her with the original idea for the Arak, Son of Thunder series drawn by Ernie Colón.[54] Writer Gerry Conway would also be a frequent collaborator with Thomas; together they wrote a two-part Superman-Captain Marvel team-up in DC Comics Presents; a series of Atari Force and Swordquest mini-comics packaged with Atari 2600 video games; and three Justice League-Justice Society crossovers.[12][55][56] Conway also contributed ideas to the funny animal comic Captain Carrot and His Amazing Zoo Crew!, created by Thomas and Scott Shaw.[12][57] Thomas and Conway were to be the co-writers of the JLA/Avengers intercompany crossover[58] but editorial disputes between DC and Marvel caused the project's cancellation.[59] As a solo writer, Roy Thomas wrote Wonder Woman and, with artist Gene Colan, updated the character's costume and introduced a new supervillainess, the Silver Swan.[12] His final work on the series, issue #300 (Feb. 1983), was co-written with Dann Thomas,[60] who, as Roy Thomas noted in 1999 "became the first woman ever to receive scripting credit on the world's foremost super-heroine."[53] Thomas realized a childhood dream in writing the Justice Society of America (JSA). Reviving the Golden Age group in Justice League of America #193 and continuing in All-Star Squadron,[61] he wrote retro adventures, like those of The Invaders, set in World War II. In addition to the JSA's high-profile heroes, Thomas revived such characters as Liberty Belle, Johnny Quick, the Shining Knight, Robotman, Firebrand, the Tarantula, and Neptune Perkins.[12] He used the series to address the complicated and sometimes contradictory continuity issues surrounding the JSA.[62] In 1983, Thomas and artist Jerry Ordway created Infinity, Inc., a group composed of the JSA's children. The characters debuted in All-Star Squadron #25 (Sept. 1983)[63] and were launched in their own series in March 1984.[64] Thomas wrote several limited series for DC including America vs. the Justice Society,[65] Jonni Thunder a.k.a. Thunderbolt, Shazam! The New Beginning, and Crimson Avenger. From 1986 to 1988, Thomas contributed to the Secret Origins series[66] and wrote most of the stories involving the Golden Age characters including Superman and Batman.[67] In 1986, DC decided to write off the JSA from active continuity. A one-shot issue titled The Last Days of the Justice Society involved most of the JSA battling the forces of evil while merged with the Norse gods in an ever-repeating Ragnarok-like Limbo was written by Thomas, with art by David Ross.[68] Young All-Stars replaced All-Star Squadron following the changes to DC's continuity brought about by the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series. Thomas's last major project for DC was an adaptation of Richard Wagner's Ring cycle drawn by Gil Kane and published in 1989–1990. Since then, Thomas has written a trio of Elseworlds one-shots combining DC characters with classic cinema and literature: Superman's Metropolis, Superman: War of the Worlds, and JLA: The Island of Dr. Moreau.[12] Later career Thomas and Gerry Conway collaborated on the screenplays for two movies: the animated feature Fire and Ice (1983) and Conan the Destroyer (1984).[69] In that latter year, Shooter wrote in 2011, Thomas sent him a letter on May 14 in which he hoped ...to let bygones be bygones, and if possible, to avoid adverse comment on Marvel and its policies. I've even long regretted the fact that your elevation to the position of editor-in-chief, in which you've obviously done a fine job, came at a time after I'd moved to the West Coast. Perhaps if we'd had more personal communication from 1977 to 1980, we could have come to some sort of agreement at that time or at least parted under more amicable circumstances. I leave it to you to decide if we should ever make any attempt to rectify that situation; certainly I've never been a grudge-carrier in other cases....[70] By 1986, Thomas had begun writing for Marvel's New Universe line, beginning with Spitfire and the Troubleshooters #5 (Feb. 1987). He then embarked on a multi-issue run of Nightmask, co-scripted by his wife Dann Thomas. He went on to script titles starring Doctor Strange, Thor, the Avengers West Coast, and Conan, often co-scripting with Dann Thomas or Jean-Marc Lofficier.[12] During the following decade, Thomas began working less for Marvel and DC than for independent companies. He wrote issues of the TV-series tie-ins Xena: Warrior Princess and Hercules: The Legendary Journeys for Topps Comics.[12] Additionally, he began writing more for other media, including television, and relaunched Alter Ego as a formal magazine published by TwoMorrows Publishing in 1999. In 2005, he earned a Master's degree in Humanities from California State University.[1] With Marvel's four-issue miniseries Stoker's Dracula (Oct. 2004 – May 2005), Thomas and artist Dick Giordano completed an adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, which the duo had begun 30 years earlier in 10- to 12-page installments, beginning with Marvel's black-and-white horror-comics magazine Dracula Lives! #5 (March 1974). They had completed 76 pages, comprising roughly one-third of the novel, through issues #6–8 and 10–11 and Marvel Preview #8 ("The Legion of Monsters"),[12] before Marvel canceled Dracula Lives and later many of its other black-and-whites.[71] Anthem, a comic book series by Thomas and artists Daniel Acuña, Jorge Santamaria Garcia and Benito Gallego, about World War II superheroes in an alternate reality, began publication by Heroic Publishing in January 2006. Thomas returned to Red Sonja in 2006, writing the one-shot Red Sonja: Monster Isle for Dynamite Entertainment. In 2007 Thomas wrote a Black Knight story for the four-issue miniseries Mystic Arcana.[12][72] In 2012 he teamed with artists Mike Hawthorne and Dan Panosian on Dark Horse's Conan:The Road of Kings, which lasted 12 issues. In 2014, he wrote 75 Years of Marvel: From the Golden Age to the Silver Screen for Taschen, a 700 page hardcover history of Marvel Comics.[73][74] He serves on the Disbursement Committee of the comic-book industry charity The Hero Initiative.[75] Awards 1969: Alley Award for Best Writer[76]1971: Shazam Award for Best Writer (Dramatic Division)[77]1973: Shazam Award for Best Individual Story ("Song of Red Sonja", with artist Barry Smith, in Conan the Barbarian #24)[78]1974: Shazam for Superior Achievement by an Individual[79]1974: Angoulême International Comics Festival Award for Best Foreign Author1974: Inkpot Award[80]1977: Favourite Comicbook Writer at the Eagle Awards[81]1977: Nomination: Favourite Single Comicbook Story at the Eagle Awards for Fantastic Four #176: "Improbable as It May Seem the Impossible Man is Back in Town" with penciler George Pérez[81]1978: Nomination: Favourite Writer at the Eagle Awards[82]1978: Nomination: Favourite Continued Story at the Eagle Awards for Star Wars #1–6 with George Lucas and Howard Chaykin[82]1979: Nomination: Best Comic Book Writer (US) at the Eagle Awards[83]1979: Nomination: Best Continued Story at the Eagle Awards for Thor #272–278 with John Buscema[83]1980: Roll of Honour at the Eagle Awards[84]1985: Named as one of the honorees by DC Comics in the company's 50th anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great.[85]1996: Author That We Loved at the Haxtur Awards[86]2011: Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame[87] Howard Victor Chaykin[1] (born October 7, 1950)[2] is an American comic book writer and artist famous for his innovative storytelling and sometimes controversial material. Chaykin’s influences include the comic-book artist Gil Kane and the mid-20th century book illustrators Robert Fawcett and Al Parker. Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Early life and career1.2 1970s1.3 1980s1.4 1990s1.5 2000s1.6 2010s2 Personal life3 Bibliography 3.1 DC3.2 Marvel3.3 Other publishers3.4 Television4 References5 External links 5.1 Interviews Biography Early life and career Howard Chaykin was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Rosalind Pave and Norman Drucker, who soon separated.[3] Chaykin was initially raised by his grandparents in Staten Island, New York City, until his mother married Leon Chaykin in 1953 and the family moved to East Flatbush and later to 370 Saratoga Avenue, Brownsville, Brooklyn.[1] At 14,[1] Chaykin moved with his now divorced mother to the Kew Gardens section of Queens.[3] He said in 2000 he was raised on welfare after his parents separated and that his absent biological father eventually was declared dead, although Chaykin, as an adult, located him alive.[1] Chaykin's "nutty and cruel"[1] adoptive father, whom Chaykin until the 1990s believed was his natural father,[3] encouraged Chaykin's interest in drawing and bought him sketchbooks.[1] He was introduced to comics by his cousin, who gave him a refrigerator box filled with them.[4] He graduated from Jamaica High School at 16, in 1967, and in the summer of 1968 worked at Zenith Press.[3] He attended Columbia College in Chicago that fall, but left school and returned to New York the following year.[3] Chaykin said that after high school, "I hitchhiked around the country" before becoming, at 19, a "gofer" for the New York City-based comic-book artist Gil Kane,[5] whom he would name as his greatest influence.[4] I'd heard on the grapevine that Gil's assistant had dropped dead of a heart attack at 23. I gave Gil a call, and he said, 'Yeah, I can use you.' So I went to work for him. ... He was doing [the early graphic novel] Blackmark, and I did a really bad job pasting up the dialog and putting in [Zip-a-Tone].... It was a great apprenticeship. I learned a lot from watching Gil work.[5] In 1970, he began publishing his art in comics and science-fiction fanzines, sometimes under the pseudonym Eric Pave.[3] Leaving Kane, he began working as an assistant to comics artist Wally Wood[6] in the studio he shared with Syd Shores and Jack Abel in Valley Stream, Long Island. He worked there for a "couple of months",[5] and in 1971 published his first professional comics work, for the adult-theme Western feature Shattuck in the military newspaper the Overseas Weekly,[3] one of Wood's clients. He also "ghosted some stuff" for Gray Morrow: "I penciled a Man-Thing story he did [for Marvel Comics' Fear #10 (cover-dated Oct. 1972)], and I penciled a thing for [the magazine] National Lampoon called "Michael Rockefeller and the Jungles of New Guinea."[5][7] He then apprenticed under Neal Adams, working with the artist at Adams' home in The Bronx.[5] This led to his first work at DC Comics, one of the two largest comics companies: Neal showed me to [editors] Murray Boltinoff and Julius Schwartz. Murray gave me a one-page filler. I also got some work from Dorothy Woolfolk, who edited the love comics. It was all just dreadful stuff, but you stumble along, and you learn. A problem for me was that by the time I became a professional, I lost any interest whatsoever in superhero comics. I'm not a horror [comics] guy, and I didn't know what the hell to do! (laughter) What I wanted to draw is guys with guns, guys with swords, and women with big tits, and that was the extent of my interest in comics at the time.[8] The "one-page filler", titled "Strange Neighbor", was inventoried and eventually published in the Boltinoff-edited Secrets of Sinister House #17 (May 1974).[3][9] His other earliest known DC work was penciling and inking the three-page story "Not Old Enough!" in Young Romance #185 (Aug. 1972), and penciling the eight-page supernatural story "Eye of the Beholder" in Forbidden Tales of Dark Mansion #7 (Oct. 1972) and the one-page "Enter the Portals of Weird War" in Weird War Tales #9 (Dec. 1972).[9] 1970s Chaykin's first major work was for DC Comics drawing the 23-page "The Price of Pain Ease" — writer Denny O'Neil's adaptation of author Fritz Leiber's characters Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser — in Sword of Sorcery #1 (March 1973).[9][10] Although the title was well received, it lasted only five issues before cancellation. Chaykin drew the character Ironwolf in the science fiction anthology title Weird Worlds[11] for DC. Moving to Marvel Comics, he began work as co-artist with Neal Adams on the first Killraven story, seen in Amazing Adventures #18 in 1973.[12] Chaykin's cover for Star*Reach #1 (April 1974). After this, Chaykin was given various adventure strips to draw for Marvel, including his own creation, Dominic Fortune (inspired by his Scorpion character, originally drawn for Atlas Comics), now in the pages of Marvel Preview.[13] In 1978, he wrote and drew his Cody Starbuck creation for the anthology title Star Reach, one of the first independent titles of the 1970s. These strips saw him explore more adult themes as best he could within the restrictions often imposed on him by editors and the Comics Code Authority. The same year, he produced for Schanes & Schanes a six-plate portfolio showcasing his character. In 1976, Chaykin landed the job of drawing the Marvel Comics adaptation of the first Star Wars film, written by Roy Thomas.[9][14][15] This proved successful for Marvel, but Chaykin left after ten issues to work in more adult and experimental comics, as well the more lucrative field of paperback book covers. In fall 1978,[16] Chaykin, Walt Simonson, Val Mayerik, and Jim Starlin formed Upstart Associates, a shared studio space on West 29th Street in New York City. The membership of the studio changed over time.[17] Chaykin penciled DC Comics' first miniseries, The World of Krypton (July–September 1979).[18][19] In the next few years he produced material for Heavy Metal, drew a graphic novel adaptation of Alfred Bester’s The Stars My Destination, and produced illustrations for works by Roger Zelazny. Chaykin collaborated on two original graphic novels — Swords of Heaven, Flowers of Hell with writer Michael Moorcock, and Empire with Samuel R. Delany — and found time to move into film design with work on the movie version of Heavy Metal. 1980s American Flagg #2 (Nov. 1983). Cover art by Chaykin. Chaykin had a six-issue run on Marvel's Micronauts series and drew issues #13 (Jan. 1980) to #18 (June 1980).[20] He went back to Cody Starbuck with a story in Heavy Metal between May and September 1981, in the same painted art style he'd used for the Moorcock graphic novel. In 1983, Chaykin launched American Flagg! for First Comics. With Chaykin as both writer and artist, the series was successful for First and proved highly influential, mixing all of Chaykin's previous ideas and interests — jazz, pulp adventure, science fiction and sex. Chaykin made wide use of Craftint Duoshade illustration boards, which in the period before computers, allowed him to add a shaded texture to the finished art.[21] After the first 26 issues of American Flagg!, Chaykin started work on new projects. Chaykin’s involvement in his original run of the series was that of writer for 29 issues, interior artist for issues #1–12 and 14–26, and cover artist for issues #1–33. He returned to full art and writing duties for the American Flagg! Special one-shot in 1986. In 1987, a four-issue run was released, then the title was cancelled and relaunched as Howard Chaykin’s American Flagg!. This new rendition failed to recapture the glory days of the title’s early years and only lasted 12 issues before cancellation. The first new project was a controversial revamp of The Shadow in a four-issue miniseries for DC Comics in 1986. Rather than setting the series in its traditional 1930s milieu, Chaykin updated it to a contemporary setting and included his own style of extreme violence. In a 2012 interview, Chaykin stated "The reason I pulled him out of the period was because I thought it would be commercial suicide to do a period character at that point."[22] The American Flagg! Special one-shot was designed to introduce Chaykin's next major work, a graphic novel series called Time². The work—combining semi-autobiographical elements with a heavy dose of jazz, film noir and a fantasy version of New York City—resulted in two graphic novels (Time²: The Epiphany (ISBN 0-915419-07-6) and Time²: The Satisfaction of Black Mariah (ISBN 0-915419-23-8)). During a 1987 interview originally published in Amazing Heroes #132, Chaykin described plans for a third graphic novel. "It's probably going to be grossly different from the first two, because I'm taking things in another direction," Chaykin said at the time. "I want to do a story that is both very funny ... and at the same time very, very ugly. Really nasty and unpleasant. Because frankly, it's the place to do that sort of thing."[23] Although Chaykin hoped it would be available in summer 1988, the third book was never released. Chaykin has described Time² as the single work about which he is most proud.[4] "To tell you the truth, my first interest would be to do another Time² because that was a very personal product for me," he said in a 2008 interview. "It's a fantasia of my family's story."[24] Before returning to American Flagg!, Chaykin revamped another DC Comics character: Blackhawk was a three-issue mini-series that gave Chaykin another chance to indulge in the 1930s milieu, proving itself another successful revamping of a defunct DC character. When DC proposed a system of labelling comics for violent or sexual content, Chaykin (with Alan Moore and Frank Miller) boycotted DC and refused to work for the company. In Chaykin’s case, the boycott would only last until the early 1990s. In 1988, Chaykin created perhaps his most controversial title: Black Kiss, a 12-issue series published by Vortex Comics which contained his most explicit depictions of sex and violence yet. Telling the story of sex-obsessed vampires in Hollywood, Black Kiss pushed the boundaries of what could be shown in mainstream comics. Even though Black Kiss shipped sealed in an "adults only" clear plastic bag, its content drew much criticism. This did not stop it from selling well enough for Chaykin to describe it as "probably, on a per-page basis, the most profitable book I've ever done."[25] 1990s Chaykin returned to DC to write a three-issue prestige format mini-series called Twilight, drawn by José Luis García-López, in a style blending Chaykin's storytelling and García-López's elegant line art. This was another radical revamp of DC characters—this time, DC’s science fiction heroes from the 1950s and 1960s, such as Tommy Tomorrow and Space Cabby. He collaborated twice with artist Mike Mignola. In 1990-1991, they produced the Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser limited series for Epic Comics with co-writer John Francis Moore and inker Al Williamson. This was followed with the Ironwolf: Fires of the Revolution graphic novel in 1992.[26] Chaykin then co-created/designed Firearm for Malibu Comics in 1993. This was followed by the four-issue miniseries Power and Glory in 1994, a superhero-themed PR satire for Malibu Comics' creator-owned Bravura imprint. In 1996, DC’s Helix imprint published Cyberella, a cyberpunk dystopia written by Chaykin and drawn by Don Cameron. Chaykin began to drift out of comics by the mid-1990s. With the exception of several Elseworlds stories he wrote for DC Comics, including Batman: Dark Allegiances which he wrote and drew in 1996, his comic output became minimal as he became more involved in film and television work. He was executive script consultant for The Flash television series on CBS,[27] and later worked on action-adventure programs such as Viper, Earth: Final Conflict and Mutant X. Near the end of the decade, Chaykin started to drift back into comics and co-wrote with David Tischman the three-issue mini-series Pulp Fantastic for the Vertigo imprint of DC, with art by Rick Burchett. 2000s Chaykin's cover for American Century #1 (May 2001). Chaykin began co-writing American Century with David Tischmann for Vertigo.[28] This story, set in post-war America, would be a pulp-adventure strip inspired by the likes of Terry and the Pirates as well as the EC Comics war stories created by Harvey Kurtzman. That year, Chaykin became part of the creative team on Mutant X, a television series inspired by the Marvel Comics series of mutant titles. His next work was Mighty Love, a 96-page original graphic novel published in 2004 and described as "You’ve Got Mail with super-powers".[29] This was acclaimed as a return to the type of work he did on American Flagg! and contained his first art in a title since the early 1990s. That year, Chaykin and Tischmann revamped Challengers of the Unknown in a six-issue mini-series for DC, as well as writing a mini-series about gangster vampires called Bite Club for Vertigo.[28] The pair wrote Barnum!: In Secret Service to the USA, a graphic novel in which real-life showman P.T. Barnum comes to the aid of the U.S. government. In 2005, Chaykin produced the six-part City of Tomorrow, a DC/Wildstorm production involving a futuristic city populated by gangster robots. Chaykin described the mini-series as "The Untouchables meets West World at Epcot."[30] That same year, he wrote the four-issue mini-series Legend updating the character Hugo Danner for Wildstorm. He illustrated 24 College Ave., a story serialized online in 54 chapters for ESPN.com’s Page 2 section. ESPN.com columnist Jim Caple wrote the text, each episode of which was accompanied by a single-panel Chaykin drawing.[31] Challengers of the Unknown #1 (Aug. 2004). Cover art by Chaykin. In 2006, he began working on his first superhero title for DC Comics, pencilling Hawkgirl, with Walter Simonson writing, starting with issue #50.[32] With issue 56, he stopped drawing the series, mainly to get time to work on Marvel’s Blade with Marc Guggenheim, although he continued to draw Hawkgirl covers for a few issues. Also in 2006, DC Comics published a two-page Black Canary origin story drawn by Chaykin for the series 52. Later that year, DC released Guy Gardner: Collateral Damage. The two-issue series, written and drawn by Chaykin, revolves around the Green Lantern Corps' role in an interstellar war. After Blade was cancelled with issue 12, he pencilled issue 50 of Punisher, Wolverine (vol. 3) #56–61, Punisher War Journal (vol. 2) (#16–24) and an issue of Immortal Iron Fist. Chaykin illustrated the 2008 Marvel MAX comic War Is Hell: The First Flight of the Phantom Eagle, scripted by Garth Ennis. He wrote Supreme Power #1–12 for Marvel. In 2009, he wrote and penciled Dominic Fortune. 2010s In 2010 he wrote Die Hard: Year One, a comic about John McClane from the Die Hard series for Boom! Studios.[33] Marvel in June 2010 published a Rawhide Kid miniseries drawn by Chaykin and written by Ron Zimmerman.[9] Chaykin wrote and drew the Avengers 1959 five-issue miniseries, a spinoff of a storyline introduced in The New Avengers. The first issue was released in October 2011.[34] Chaykin helmed a reboot of the science-fiction character Buck Rogers beginning in August 2013, again in the capacity of both artist and writer.[35] Personal life In 1972, Chaykin married Daina Graziunas.[3] The marriage ended in 1977 and the following year he married Leslie Zahler.[36] That marriage in turn ended in 1986, and in 1989 Chaykin married Jeni Munn, a union that lasted through 1992.[37] As of 2013, Chaykin serves on the Disbursement Committee of the comic-book industry charity The Hero Initiative.[38] Bibliography His work as an artist (interior pencil art, except where noted) includes: Chaykin in 2012 DC Adventure Comics (Shining Knight) #438 (1975)American Century #1–27 (co-writer, 2001–2003)Barnum!, Original Graphic Novel (co-writer, 2003)Batgirl & Robin: Thrillkiller #1–3 (writer, 1997)Batman: Dark Allegiances (writer/artist, 1996)Batman Black and White, miniseries, #1 (writer/artist, 1996)Batman/Catwoman : Follow the Money (2010) Batman Family #14 (1977)Bite Club, miniseries #1–6 (co-writer, 2004)Bite Club: Vampire Crime Unit, miniseries, #1–6 (co-writer, 2006)Blackhawk #260 (1983)Blackhawk, miniseries, #1–3 (writer/artist, 1988)Challengers of the Unknown, miniseries, #1–6 (writer/artist, 2004)City of Tomorrow, miniseries, #1–6 (writer/artist, 2005)Cyberella, #1–12 (writer, 1996)Detective Comics (Batman & Robin) #441 (1974); (Human Target) #483 (1979)Forbidden Tales of Dark Mansion #7 (1972)DC Holiday Special '09 (Enemy Ace) #1 (2010)Guy Gardner: Collateral Damage, miniseries, #1–2 (2007)Hawkgirl #50–56 (2006)House of Mystery #277 (1980)JSA: All-Stars, miniseries, #5 (2003)Justice Society of America 80-Page Giant #1 (among other artists) (2011)Men of War (Enemy Ace) #9–10, 12–14, 19–20 (1978–79)Mighty Love, OGN (writer/artist, 2004)Orion #7 (co-writer/artist, 2000)The Shadow, miniseries, #1–4 (1985)Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes #240 (1978)Son of Superman OGN (co-writer, 1996)Sword of Sorcery (Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser) #1–5 (1973)Tarzan (backup story) #216 (1973)Time Warp #2 (1979)Twilight, miniseries, #1–3 (writer, 1990)Weird War Tales #48, 61–62, 67, 69, 76, 82 (1976–79)Weird Western Tales (Cinnamon) #49 (1978)Weird Worlds (Ironwolf) #8–10 (1973–74)World of Krypton, miniseries, #1–3 (1979) Marvel Amazing Adventures, vol. 2, (Killraven) #18 (along with Neal Adams), 19 (1973)Avengers 1959, miniseries, #1- (2011)Blade #1–8 (2006–07)Captain America #600, 616 (among other artists) (2009–11)Captain America Theater of War: America First! (2009)Chamber of Chills #4 (1973)Conan the Barbarian #79–83 (1977–78)Hulk! (Dominic Fortune) #21–25 (1980–81)The Immortal Iron Fist Annual #1 (among other artists) (2007)Iron Man, vol. 5, (Tony Stark) #503 (2011)James Bond for Your Eyes Only #2 (1981)Kull and the Barbarians (Red Sonja) #2–3 (1975)Magneto #1 (2010)Marvel Comics Super Special #9, 19 (1978–81)Marvel Preview (Dominic Fortune) #20 (1980)Marvel Spotlight (Nick Fury) #31 (1976)Marvel Team-Up (Spider-Man) #76–77 (1978)New Avengers #21 (2007)New Avengers, vol. 2, #9-on (with Mike Deodato, doing "Avengers 1959" flashbacks) (2011)Punisher War Journal, vol. 2, #16–25 (2008–09)Star Wars #1–10 (1977–1978)X-Men vs. Vampires, miniseries, #2 (2010) Other publishers American Flagg! #1–12, 14–26 (writer/artist); #13, 27–29 (writer) (First, 1983–86)Black Kiss #1–12 (writer/artist) (Vortex, 1988–89)Creepy #64 (Warren, 1974)Power & Glory, miniseries, #1–4 of 4 (writer/artist) (Malibu/Bravura, 1994)The Scorpion #1–2 (writer/artist) (Atlas/Seaboard, 1975)Star*Reach #1, 4–5 (1974–76) (Star*Reach)Satellite Sam #1- (2013) (Image Comics) Television The Flash -Ep.3: "Watching the Detectives" (co-written with John Francis Moore) -Ep.4: "Honor Among Thieves" (plotted with Moore, teleplay by Danny Bilson and Paul De Meo) -Ep.7:"Child's Play" (teleplay co-written with Moore, plot by Stephen Hattman and Gail Morgan Hickman) -Ep.8: "Shroud of Death" (plotted with Moore, teleplay by Michael Reaves) -Ep.9: "Ghost in the Machine" (co-written with Moore) -Ep.12: "The Trickster" (co-written with Moore) -Ep.16: "Deadly Nightshade" (co-written with Moore) -Ep. 19: "Done with Mirrors" (co-written with Moore) -Ep. 22. "The Trail of the Trickster" (co-written with Moore) Mutant X Season One -Ep. 1 and 2: "The Shock of the New" -Ep.8: "In the Prescene of Mine Enemies" -Ep.18: "Ex Marks the Spot" (co-written with Mark Amato and David Newman) -Ep.22: "A Breed Apart" ebay4169 Condition: Very good condition. Unused but suffers from slight shelf wear. One tiny pen ( Price change ) writing at top of front cover. Very slight cover wear. bottom and top spine slightly detached .( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Country of Manufacture: Israel, Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel, Issue Number: NUMBER 1 VOLUME 1, Main Character: STAR WARS, Grade: very good condition, Year: 1977-1986, Publication Date: 1977-1986, Publisher: LUKASFILM, Certification: 100% Guaranteed ORIGINAL

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